Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 72, Issue 13, pp 1439–1457 | Cite as

Nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins

  • A. V. Sorokin
  • E. R. Kim
  • L. P. OvchinnikovEmail author


In eukaryotic cells, the movement of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC)—a large protein complex spanning the nuclear envelope. The nuclear transport of proteins is usually mediated by a family of transport receptors known as karyopherins. Karyopherins bind to their cargoes via recognition of nuclear localization signal (NLS) for nuclear import or nuclear export signal (NES) for export to form a transport complex. Its transport through NPC is facilitated by transient interactions between the karyopherins and NPC components. The interactions of karyopherins with their cargoes are regulated by GTPase Ran. In the current review, we describe the NPC structure, NLS, and NES, as well as the model of classic Ran-dependent transport, with special emphasis on existing alternative mechanisms; we also propose a classification of the basic mechanisms of protein transport regulation.

Key words

nucleocytoplasmic transport nuclear pore complex nucleoporin exportin importin karyopherin nuclear export signal nuclear localization signal Ran 



Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin


cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene


central gated channel


cytoplasmic retention signal


endoplasmic reticulum


inner nuclear membrane


ligand-binding domain


nuclear export signal


nuclear localization signal


classical (basic) NLS


nuclear pore complex


nuclear transport factor


outer nuclear membrane


Ran-binding proteins


RNA recognition motifs

STAT proteins

signal transducers and activators of transcription


transmembrane nucleoporins


wheat germ agglutinin


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Sorokin
    • 1
  • E. R. Kim
    • 1
  • L. P. Ovchinnikov
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Protein ResearchRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow RegionRussia

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