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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 72, Issue 13, pp 1439–1457 | Cite as

Nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins

  • A. V. Sorokin
  • E. R. Kim
  • L. P. OvchinnikovEmail author
Review

Abstract

In eukaryotic cells, the movement of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC)—a large protein complex spanning the nuclear envelope. The nuclear transport of proteins is usually mediated by a family of transport receptors known as karyopherins. Karyopherins bind to their cargoes via recognition of nuclear localization signal (NLS) for nuclear import or nuclear export signal (NES) for export to form a transport complex. Its transport through NPC is facilitated by transient interactions between the karyopherins and NPC components. The interactions of karyopherins with their cargoes are regulated by GTPase Ran. In the current review, we describe the NPC structure, NLS, and NES, as well as the model of classic Ran-dependent transport, with special emphasis on existing alternative mechanisms; we also propose a classification of the basic mechanisms of protein transport regulation.

Key words

nucleocytoplasmic transport nuclear pore complex nucleoporin exportin importin karyopherin nuclear export signal nuclear localization signal Ran 

Abbreviations

CaM

Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin

CAS

cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene

CGC

central gated channel

CRS

cytoplasmic retention signal

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

INM

inner nuclear membrane

LBD

ligand-binding domain

NES

nuclear export signal

NLS

nuclear localization signal

cNLS

classical (basic) NLS

NPC

nuclear pore complex

NTF2

nuclear transport factor

ONM

outer nuclear membrane

RanBP

Ran-binding proteins

RRM

RNA recognition motifs

STAT proteins

signal transducers and activators of transcription

TM

transmembrane nucleoporins

WGA

wheat germ agglutinin

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Sorokin
    • 1
  • E. R. Kim
    • 1
  • L. P. Ovchinnikov
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Protein ResearchRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow RegionRussia

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