Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 72, Issue 8, pp 797–808 | Cite as

Lipid second messengers and cell signaling in vascular wall

  • N. V. Prokazova
  • N. N. Samovilova
  • N. K. Golovanova
  • E. V. Gracheva
  • A. A. Korotaeva
  • E. R. Andreeva
Review

Abstract

Agonists of cellular receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, etc., activate phospholipases (Cγ, Cβ, A2, D), sphingomyelinase, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. This produces active lipid metabolites, some of which are second messengers: inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerides, ceramide, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. These universal mechanisms are involved in signal transduction to maintain blood vessel functions: regulation of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, mechanical stress resistance, and anticoagulant properties of the vessel lumen surface. Different signaling pathways realized through lipid second messengers interact to one another and modulate intracellular events. In early stages of atherogenesis, namely, accumulation of low density lipoproteins in the vascular wall, cascades of pro-atherogenic signal transduction are triggered through lipid second messengers. This leads to atherosclerosis, the general immuno-inflammatory disease of the vascular system.

Key words

phospholipases phospholipids inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate diacyl-glycerides ceramide endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells 

Abbreviations

AT1

angiotensin II receptor

cPLA2

cytosolic phospholipase A2

DAG

diacylglycerides

eNOS

endothelial NO synthase

ERK

extracellular signal-regulated kinases

ET-1

endothelin-1

FAK

focal adhesion kinase

HDL

high density lipoproteins

IP3

inositol trisphosphate

LDL

low density lipoproteins

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinases

MLC

myosin light chains

oxLDL

oxidized LDL

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

PI3K

phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PKB

protein kinase B/Akt

PKC

protein kinase C

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PLD

phospholipase D

PtdIns(3)P

phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate

PtdIns(3,4)P2

phos-phatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate

PtdIns(3,5)P2

phos-phatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate

PtdIns(4,5)P2

phos-phatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PtdIns(3,4,5)P3

phos-phatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SAPK

stress-activated protein kinase

SMC

smooth muscle cells

S1P

sphingosine-1-phosphate

TGF-β

trans-forming growth factor-β

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-α

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. V. Prokazova
    • 1
  • N. N. Samovilova
    • 1
  • N. K. Golovanova
    • 1
  • E. V. Gracheva
    • 1
  • A. A. Korotaeva
    • 1
  • E. R. Andreeva
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Experimental CardiologyRussian Cardiology Research CenterMoscowRussia

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