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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 72, Issue 5, pp 485–494 | Cite as

Unknown functions of immunoglobulins A

  • T. N. Kazeeva
  • A. B. ShevelevEmail author
Review

Abstract

Traditionally, the function of immunoglobulins A (IgA), the major type of secreted antibodies, has been thought to be restricted to binding antigens outside the epithelium basal membrane. Therefore, effector mechanisms eliminating IgA-opsonized targets have not been investigated so far. However, some indirect observations of infectious agents penetrating into tissues and blood from the environment suggest such mechanisms (analogous to IgG/IgM-dependent activation of complement and natural killers). In the present review, we examine details of IgA structure that might contribute to elucidation of IgA-dependent effector functions in human and animal immunity. Special attention is given to a putative transduction of signal about antigen binding in the active center of IgA from the Fab-to the Fc-superdomain via intramolecular conformational rearrangements. Different structure of the IgA subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) is examined taking into account probable divergence of their functions in immune response.

Key words

secretory immunity IgA antibodies effectors IgA1-proteases CD89 respiratory burst 

Abbreviations

a.a.

amino acid residue

CHα (Cα)

constant domain of heavy (α) IgA chain

Fab

variable antigen-binding superdomain of Ig

Fc

constant superdomain of Ig

Fcα R

receptor specific for Fc-superdomain of IgA

Fd

component of the heavy chain within Fabα-fragment

Ig

immunoglobulin

NIP

5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (hapten)

pIgR

polymeric immunoglobulin receptor

SC

secretory component of Ig

S-IgA

secreted form of IgA

VH

variable region of Ig

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bach Institute of BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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