Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 297–305 | Cite as

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterisation of the anti-Listeria components of Garcinia kola seeds

  • D. Penduka
  • K. A. Basson
  • B. Mayekiso
  • L. Buwa
  • I. A. Okoh


Adsorption chromatography was used to separate the bioactive constituents of the crude n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds. The silica gel 60 column fractions were eluted using the solvent combination of benzene:ethanol:ammonium hydroxide (BEA) in the ratio combination of 36:4:0.4 v/v. The fractions were tested for anti-Listeria activities by determining their MIC50, MIC90 or MIC against 4 Listeria isolates. The fractions were labelled BEA1 to BEA5 and 3 out of the 5 fractions eluted were active against the test Listeria species with MIC’s ranging from MIC 0.157 mg/mL to MIC50 0.625 mg/mL. The most active fractions, BEA2 and BEA3, were subjected to gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their composition. Fraction BEA2 constituted of 18 compounds mostly sterols and the BEA3 fraction contained 27 compounds with the most abundant compounds being fatty acids derivatives. The BEA2 fraction’s interactions with antibiotics proved to be 100% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin whilst it exhibited 50% additivity and 50% synergism with penicillin G. However, all the interactions of the BEA2 fraction with each of the conventional antibiotics used were synergistic against the human listeriosis causative bacteria Listeria monocytogenes.


High Performance Liquid Chromatography Apply Biochemistry Listeria Hexane Extract Acid Ethyl Ester 
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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Penduka
    • 1
  • K. A. Basson
    • 2
  • B. Mayekiso
    • 1
  • L. Buwa
    • 1
  • I. A. Okoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyUniversity of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaKwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

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