Mechanism for the Formation of Temperature Anomalies in the Upper Layer of the North Atlantic
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ORA-S3 oceanological reanalysis data for 1959–2011 is applied to analyze the role different factors play in forming advective heat transfer anomalies on an interannual–decadal scale in the upper mixed layer of the North Atlantic. Regions are revealed in which horizontal heat advection anomalies are determined by variations in current intensity, temperature gradients, and their joint influence. It is demonstrated that the contribution of different mechanisms responsible for advective heat transfer anomalies in the upper mixed layer to the total anomalies of advective origin varies fundamentally from one current to another in the North Atlantic. In the Gulf Stream area (after it separates from the continental slope), horizontal heat advection anomalies in the upper mixed layer result mainly from fluctuations in current intensity, while in the Caribbean Current and the Gulf Stream area (until its separation), they result from variations in the horizontal temperature gradients in the upper mixed layer. In the Labrador Current, both of these mechanisms have the same sign and approximately the same absolute values. In the East Greenland Current, they compensate each other. The contribution of anomalies in horizontal temperature gradients transferred by anomalous currents to the formation of heat transfer anomalies in the upper layer of the North Atlantic are, on the whole, relatively small throughout the water area. The areas of the North Atlantic and West Greenland currents are exceptions.
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