, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 558–572 | Cite as

Does Zooplankton Control Phytoplankton Development in White Sea Coastal Waters in Spring?

  • A. V. Drits
  • T. A. Belevich
  • L. V. Ilyash
  • T. N. Semenova
  • M. V. Flint


Grazing impact of dominant zooplankton species on phytoplankton was estimated in the coastal areas of the White Sea in spring. The material was collected on expeditions of the R/V Ekolog in June 2012 and 2015 in Kandalaksha Gulf and Onega Bay of the White Sea. The data on the composition and biomass of zooplankton showed that depending on the intensity of the warming of the water column at the beginning of productive season, the zooplankton community was at the early-spring or late-spring stage of seasonal development. Zooplankton grazing impact varied from 1 to 90% of phytoplankton biomass and from 7 to 470% of primary production. The results are discussed in relation to the hydrothermal regime and the phase of coastal plankton community succession in different years.



The authors are grateful to the crew of the R/V Ekolog for their assistance in the work.The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 14-17-00095: field studies; processing of hydrophysical data; and processing of zooplankton samples) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 16-05-00037: processing of data on chlorophyll concentration and processing and analysis of experimental results on zooplankton feeding; 16-05-00502: assessment of primary production and processing of phytoplankton samples; and 16-04-00375: analysis of data on the zooplankton composition and distribution).


  1. 1.
    E. G. Arashkevich, M. V. Flint, A. B. Nikishina, A. F. Pasternak, A. G. Timonin, J. V. Vasilieva, S. A. Mosharov, and K. A. Soloviev, “The role of zooplankton in the transformation of the organic matter in the Ob estuary, on the shelf, and in the deep regions of the Kara Sea,” Oceanology (Engl. Transl.) 50, 780–792 (2010).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. V. Drits, E. G. Arashkevich, A. B. Nikishina, V. M. Sergeeva, K. A. Solovyev, and M. V. Flint, “Feeding of dominant zooplankton species and their grazing impact on autotrophic phytoplankton in the Yenisei estuary in autumn,” Oceanology (Engl. Transl.) 55, 573–582 (2015).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. V. Ilyash, T. A. Belevich, A. N. Stupnikova, A. V. Drits, and M. V. Flint, “Effects of local hydrophysical conditions on the spatial variability of phytoplankton in the White Sea,” Oceanology (Engl. Transl.) 55, 216–225 (2015).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. N. Kosobokova, “Age and seasonal changes of biochemical composition of Calanus glacialis Jaschnov related to specific life cycle in the White Sea,” Okeanologiya (Moscow), 30, 138–146 (1990).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. N. Kosobokova and N. M. Pertsova, “Zooplankton of the White Sea: structure, dynamics, and ecology of communities,” in The White Sea System. Water Column and Interacting Atmosphere, Cryosphere, River Run-Off, and Biosphere, Ed. by A. P. Lisitsyn (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2012), Vol. 2, pp. 640–674.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. P. Kutcheva, “The results of spring planktonic surveys of the Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) at the depth 0–5 m,” Proceedings of IX International Conference “Study, Rational Use, and Protection of the White Sea Resources,” October 11–14, 2004 (Petrozavodsk, 2005), pp. 184–186.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. M. Martynova, Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. M. Martynova, “Complex approach to evaluation of pellet flux in the White Sea,” in The White Sea System. Water Column and Interacting Atmosphere, Cryosphere, River Run-Off, and Biosphere, Ed. by A. P. Lisitsyn (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2012), Vol. 2, pp. 675–691.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. M. Pertsova and R. V. Prygunkova, “Zooplankton,” in Study of Marine Fauna, Vol. 42 (50): White Sea, Part 1: Biological Resources and Their Rational Use (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1995), pp. 115–141.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. M. Pertsova and K. N. Kosobokova, “Zooplankton of estuaries of small rivers of the Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea,” Tr. Belomorsk. Biol. Stn. Mosk. Gos. Univ. 8, 176–185 (2002).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. A. Torshkov, “Zooplankton,” in Study of Marine Fauna, Vol. 69 (77): Biological Resources of the White Sea: Study and Use (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 2012), pp. 67–87.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. I. Usov, Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 2004).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. L. Chislenko, Nomograms for Determination of Weight of Aquatic Organisms by Size and Body Shape (Nauka, Leningrad, 1968) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. A. Baars and H. G. Francz, “Grazing pressure of copepods on the phytoplankton stock of the central North Sea,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 18, 120–142 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. Berger, S. Dahle, K. Galaktionov, et al., White Sea: Ecology and Environment, Ed. by V. Berger and S. Dahle (Derzavets, Tromso, 2001).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. J. Gowen, G. McCullough, G. S. Kleppel, L. Houchin, and P. Elliott, “Are the copepods important grazers of the spring bloom in the western Irish Sea?” J. Plankton Res. 21 (3), 465–483 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O. Holm-Hansen and B. Riemann, “Chlorophyll a determination: improvements in methodology,” Oikos 30, 438–447 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Irigoien, “Gut clearance rate constant, temperature and initial gut contents: a review,” J. Plankton Res. 20 (5), 997–1003 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Kierboe, F. Mohlenberg, and N. Nicolajsen, “Ingestion rate and gut clearance in the planktonic copepod Centropages hamatus (Lilljeborg) in relation to food concentration and temperature,” Ophelia 21, 181–194 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. N. Kosobokova, D. M. Martynova, and A. A. Prudkovsky, “Contribution of zooplankton to vertical carbon fluxes in the Kara and White seas,” Polarforschung 75 (2–3), 77–82 (2005).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Liu and R. R. Hopkroft, “Growth and development of Pseudocalanus sp. in the northern Gulf of Alaska,” J. Plankton Res. 30, 923–935 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. L. Mackas and R. N. Bohrer, “Fluorescence analysis of zooplankton gut contents and investigation of diel feeding patterns,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 25, 77–85 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. M. Martynova, M. Graeve, and U. V. Bathmann, “Adaptation strategies of copepods (superfamily Centropagoidea) in the White Sea (66° N),” Polar Biol. 32, 133–146 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. M. Martynova, N. A. Kazus, U. V. Bathmann, et al., “Seasonal abundance and feeding patterns of copepods Temora longicornis, Centropages hamatus and Acartia spp. in the White Sea (66° N),” Polar Biol. 34 (8), 1175–1195 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Mauchline, “The biology of Calanoid copepods,” in Advances in Marine Biology, Ed. by J. H. S. Blaxter, , (Academic, San Diego, 1998), Vol. 53, p. 710.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Nicolajsen, F. Mohlenberg, and T. Kiorboe, “Algal grazing by the planktonic copepod Centropages hamatus and Pseudocalanus sp.: diurnal and seasonal variation during spring phytoplankton bloom,” Ophelia 22 (1), 15–31 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Pasternak, E. Arashkevich, M. Reigstad, et al., “Dividing mesozooplankton into upper and lower size groups: Applications to the grazing impact in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Barents Sea,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 55, 2245–2256 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. M. Pertsova and K. N. Kosobokova, “Zooplankton of the White Sea. History of investigation and the present state of knowledge—a review,” Ber. Polarforsch. 359, 30–41 (2000).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. M. Pertsova and K. N. Kosobokova, “Zooplankton of the White Sea: features of composition and structure, seasonal dynamics, and the contribution to the formation of matter fluxes,” Oceanology (Engl. Transl.) 43, S109–S122 (2003).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Usov, I. Kutcheva, I. Primakov, and D. Martynova, “Every species is good in its season: Do the shifts in the annual temperature dynamics affect the phenology of the zooplankton species in the White Sea?” Hydrobiologia 706 (1), 11–33 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. W. Sterner, “The role of grazing in phytoplankton succession,” in Plankton Ecology: Succession in Plankton Communities, Ed. by U. Simmer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 107–170.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Wlodarczykl, A. G. Durbin, and E. G. Durbin, “Effect of temperature on lower feeding thresholds, gut evacuation rate, and diel feeding behavior in the copepod Acartia hudsonica,” Mar. Ecol.: Progr. Ser. 85, 93–106 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Drits
    • 1
  • T. A. Belevich
    • 2
  • L. V. Ilyash
    • 2
  • T. N. Semenova
    • 1
  • M. V. Flint
    • 1
  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations