Modeling an Urban Heat Island during Extreme Frost in Moscow in January 2017
- 5.5k Downloads
Using the example of an analysis of an extreme lowering of temperature in Moscow in January 2017, the horizontal and vertical extent of the urban heat island against the background of a strong stable stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer is studied. The possibilities of measuring and monitoring the vertical structure of the atmosphere using ground-based remote sensing are investigated. The capabilities of the mesoscale model WRF, adapted for a detailed description of mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, in reproducing the spatial dynamics of the temperature anomaly are demonstrated. The numerical estimates of the amplitude and vertical extent of the urban heat island are compared with the measurement accuracy and the total errors of the numerical predictions. A comparison of measurement data and numerical simulation results on the WRF model, using the example of a winter urban heat island in January 2017, showed that mesoscale synoptic models so far only capture the main features of the urban heat island. However, deviations between model and observed temperature fields can reach 5°C.
Keywords:urban heat island mesoscale modeling atmospheric stratification inversions
We are grateful to D.D. Kuznetsov and V.S. Lyulyukin for providing the observational data.
This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects nos. 18-08-00074, 19-05-00028 and 18-05-60126.
The work of M. Varentsov on the analysis of the spatial structure of the heat island according to surface observations was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 17-77-20070.
- 1.J. Y. Han, J. J. Baik, and H. Lee, “Urban impacts on precipitation,” Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci 50 (1), 17–30 (2014).Google Scholar
- 9.D. Zhou, S. Zhao, L. Zhang, G. Sun, and Y. Liu, “The footprint of urban heat island effect in China,” Sci. Rep. 5, 2–12 (2015).Google Scholar
- 11.T. L. Mote, M. C. Lacke, and J. M. Shepherd, “Radar signatures of the urban effect on precipitation distribution: A case study for Atlanta, Georgia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 (20), 2–5 (2007).Google Scholar
- 15.A. Tzavali, J. P. Paravantis, G. Mihalakakou, A. Fotiadi, and E. Stigka, “Urban heat island intensity: A literature review,” Fresenius Environ. Bull. 24, 4535–4554 (2015).Google Scholar
- 16.T. R. Oke, “The energetic basis of the urban heat island,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 108 (455), 1–24 (1982).Google Scholar
- 27.B. A. Revich, “Heat waves, atmospheric air quality and the mortality of the population of the European part of Russia in summer 2010: Preliminary assessment results,” Ekol. Chel., No. 7, 3–9 (2011).Google Scholar
- 28.V. V. Vinogradova, “Heat waves in the European Russia at the beginning of the 21st century,” Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk: Ser. Geogr., No. 1, 47–55 (2014).Google Scholar
- 29.M. I. Varentsov, P. I. Konstantinov, T. E. Samsonov, and I. A. Repina, “Investigation of the urban heat island phenomenon during the polar night with experimental measurements and remote sensing for Norilsk city,” Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Kosmosa 11 (4), 329–337 (2014).Google Scholar
- 32.P. I. Konstantinov, M. Yu. Grishchenko, and M. I. Varentsov, “Mapping urban heat islands of arctic cities using combined data on field measurements and satellite images based on the example of the city of Apatity (Murmansk Oblast),” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 51 (9), 992–998 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Meteorological temperature profiler MTP-5. http://attex.net/RU/mtp5.php.Google Scholar
- 49.E. N. Kadygrov, I. N. Kuznetsova, and G. S. Golitsyn, “Heat island in the boundary atmospheric layer over a large city: New results based on remote sensing data,” Dokl. Earth Sci. 385 (6), 688–694 (2002).Google Scholar
- 50.I. N. Kuznetsova, E. N. Kadygrov, E. A. Miller, and M. I. Nakhaev, “Characteristics of the lowest 600 m atmospheric layer temperature on the basis of MTP-5 profiler data,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana. 25 (10), 877–883 (2012).Google Scholar
- 53.The Weather Research and Forecasting Model. http://www.wrf-model.org.Google Scholar
- 54.J. Michalakes, J. Dudhia, D. Gill, T. Henderson, J. Klemp, W. Skamarock, and W. Wang, “The Weather Research and Forecast Model: Software architecture and performance,” in Use of High Performance Computing in Meteorology, Proceedings of the Eleventh ECMWF Workshop, Reading, UK, 25–29 October 2004, Ed. by W. Zwieflhofer and G. Mozdzynski (World Scientific, 2005), pp. 156–168.Google Scholar
- 55.W. C. Skamarock, J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. M. Barker, M. G. Duda, X. Y. Huang, W. Wang, and J. G. Powers, A description of the advanced research WRF Version 3, NCAR Technical Note, Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, 2008.Google Scholar
- 56.Global Forecast System. http://www.emc.ncep.noaa. gov/GFS/doc.php.Google Scholar
- 58.M. J. Iacono, J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, and W. D. Collins, “Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113 (D13) (2008).Google Scholar
- 59.M. Tewari, F. Chen, W. Wang, J. Dudhia, M. A. LeMone, K. Mitchell, M. Ek, G. Gayno, J. Wegiel, and R. H. Cuenca, “Implementation and verification of the unified NOAH land surface model in the WRF model,” in 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/16th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction (2004), Vol. 1115, pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
- 62.F. Chen, H. Kusaka, R. Bornstein, J. Ching, C. S. B. Grimmond, S. Grossman-Clarke, T. Loridan, K. W. Manning, A. Martilli, S. Miao, and D. Sailor, “The integrated WRF/urban modelling system: Development, evaluation, and applications to urban environmental problems,” Int. J. Climatol. 31 (2), 273–288 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 64.B. P. Shekhtman, The Moscow Climate: Specific Features of Climate in a Megacity) (Gidrometeoizdat, Moscow, 1969) [in Russian].Google Scholar