Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

, Volume 54, Issue 8, pp 826–847 | Cite as

Autonomous (Non-Plate-Tectonic) Geodynamics of the Pyrenees

  • V. I. ShevchenkoEmail author
  • T. V. Guseva
  • I. P. Dobrovolsky
  • I. S. Krupennikova
  • A. A. Lukk


The tectonic structure, seismicity, and modern geodynamics of the roughly EW-trending Pyrenees are considered based on the literature data. Geological evidence suggests that the structure of this mountain system is dominated by scaly overthrusts partially shifting into tectonic covers and conjugated folds. A lower width of the Pyrenees in the near-NS direction, across the strike, which was expected in the context of the plate-tectonic concept due to compression resulting from the convergence of the Eurasian Plate in the north and the African and Iberian lithospheric plates in the south, has not been confirmed by the geodetic data. GPS measurements reveal a higher width of the Pyrenees, also established by the seismological data based on the interpretation of the earthquake foci sets. Thus, there is a clear contradiction between the results obtained, on the one hand, by geological methods and, on the other hand, by geodetic and seismological surveys. This contradiction is proposed to be eliminated by invoking the previously developed ideas of the volume expansion of stratified rocks and the expansion of the corresponding parts of the Earth’s crust as a result of the inflow of additional mineral material with deep fluids rising from the lower crust/upper mantle.


tectonic structure seismicity stress state modern geodynamics the Pyrenees 



  1. 1.
    Alasset, P.-J. and Meghraoui, M., Active faulting in the Western Pyrenees (France): Paleoseismic evidence for late Holocene ruptures, Tectonophysics, 2005, vol. 409, pp. 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aptikaeva, O.I., Kopnichev, Yu.F., and Shevchenko, V.I., The structure of crust and upper mantle and technogenesis of the territory of the Garm polygon (Tadzhikistan), Fiz. Zemli, 1994, nos. 7–8, pp. 53–64.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Artem’ev, M.E., Izostaticheskie anomalii sily tyazhesti i nekotorye voprosy ikh geologicheskogo istolkovaniya (Isostatic Gravity Anomalies and Some Issues of Their Geological Interpretation), Moscow: Nauka, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asensio, E., Khazaradze, G., Echeverria, A., King, R.W., and Vilajosana, I., GPS studies of active deformation in the Pyrenees, Geophys. J. Int., 2012, vol. 190, pp. 913–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aubouin, J., Méditerranée orientale et Méditerranée occidentale: Esquisse d’une comparaison du carde alpin, Bull. Soc. Géol. France, 1977, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 421–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aubouin, J., Méditerranéenne (Aire), in Encyclopedia Universalis, 1984, vol. 11, pp. 1023–1030.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barkovskaya, K.S., Bezborodov, R.S., Brod, I.O., et al., Geologicheskoe stroenie vostochnoi chasti severnogo sklona Kavkaza (Geological Structure of the Eastern Part of the Northern Slope of the Caucasus), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat, 1960.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Batalev, V.Yu., Bataleva, E.A., Rybin, A.K., and Matyukov, V.E., Vzaimosvyaz’ tektonicheskikh i morfologicheskikh kharakteristik s glubinnym stroeniem Tsentral’nogo Tyan’-Shanya, in Tektonika sovremennykh i drevnikh okeanov i ikh okrain: Materialy XLIX Tekton. soveshch. (Tectonics of Present-Day and Ancient Oceans and Their Margins: Proceedings of the XLIX Meeting on Tectonics), Moscow, GEOS, 2017, vol. 1, pp. 48–52.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Belokopytov, V.A., Guseva, T.V., Lukk, A.A., Skovorodkin, Ju.P., Trapeznikov, Ju.A., and Shevchenko, V.I., Present-day geodynamics and seismicity in the Garm test area, Tadjikistan, Tectonophysics, 1992, vol. 202, nos. 2–4, pp. 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Belousov, V.V., Strukturnaya geologiya (Structural Geology), Moscow: MGU, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bogdanov, N.A., Koronovskii, N.V., Lomize, M.G., Chekhovich, V.D., and Yutsis, V.V., Tektonicheskaya karta Sredizemnogo morya (Tectonic Map of the Mediterranean Sea), Moscow: Fed. sluzhba geodezii i kartografii Rossii, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bourouilh, R., Moen-Maurel, L., Muñoz, J., and Teixell, A., Western Pyrenees fold-and-thrust-belt: Geodynamics, sedimentation and plate boundary reconstruction from rifting to inversion, in The 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 2004, vol. 2, B16–B33.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calvet, M., Sylvander, M., Margerin, L., and Villasenor, A., Spatial variations of seismic attenuation and heterogeneity in the Pyrenees: Coda Q and peak delay time analysis, Tectonophysics, 2013, vol. 608, pp. 428–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chevrot, S., Sylvander, M., and Delouis, B., A preliminary catalog of moment tensors for the Pyrenees, Tectonophysics, 2011, vol. 510, nos. 1–2, pp. 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chevrot, S., Villasenor, A., Sylvander, M., Benahmed, S., et al., High resolution imaging of the Pyrenees and Massif Central from the data of the PYROPE and IBERARRAY portable array deployments, J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth, 2014, vol. 119, pp. 6399–6420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Debelmas, J., Alpine Europe, Episodes, 1980, vol. 1980, no. 1, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Vicente, G., Cloetingh, S., Muñoz-Martin, A., Olaiz, A., Vegas, R., Galindo-Zaldivar, J., and Fernández-Lozano, J., Inversion of moment tensor focal mechanisms for active stresses around the microcontinent Iberia: Tectonic implications, Tectonics, 2008, vol. 27, TC1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dobrovolskii, I.P., An inclusion problem, Mech. Solids, 2010, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 726–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dumont, T., Replumaz, A., Roumejon, S., Briais, A., Rigo, A., and Bouillin, J.-P., Microseismicity of the Béarn range: Reactivation of inversion and collision structures at the northern edge of the Iberian plate: Seismicity and structures in Western Pyrenees, Tectonics, 2015, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 934–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gasparini, C., Iannaccone, G., Scandone, P., and Scarpa, R., Seismotectonics of the Calabria arc, Tectonophysics, 1982, vol. 84, nos. 2–4, pp. 267–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gorbatikov, A.V., The method of microseismic sounding: Study of the resolution, application fields, and examples, in Sovremennaya tektonofizika, metody i rezul’taty (Modern Tectonophysics: Methods and Results), Moscow: IFZ RAN, 2013. vol. 2, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorbatikov, A.V., Rogozhin, E.A., Stepanova, M.Yu., Kharazova, Yu.V., Andreeva, N.V., Perederin, F.V., Zaalishvili, V.B., Mel’kov, D.A., Dzeranov, B.V., Dzeboev, B.A., and Gabaraev, A.F., The pattern of deep structure and recent tectonics of the Greater Caucasus in the Ossetian sector from the complex geophysical data, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2015, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guseva, T.V., Lukk, A.A., Trapeznikov, Yu.A., and Shevchenko, V.I., Geodynamics of the territory of the Garm polygon (Tadzhikistan) according to the results of optical distance measurements, Geotektonika, 1993, no. 3, pp. 47–54.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gushchin, A.I., Nikitin, M.Yu., Panov, D.I., and Shevchenko, V.I., The structure of the Eastern Caucasus (the Varanda–Andi and Stor intersections), Byull. MOIP, Geol., 1996, no. 2, pp. 53–63.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Heflin, M., Moore, A., Murphy, D., et al., GPS Time Series. https:, Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khain, V.E., Regional’naya geotektonika: Severnaya i Yuzhnaya Amerika, Antarktida, Afrika (Regional Geotectonics: North and South America, Antarctic, and Africa), Moscow: Nedra, 1970.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khain, V.E., Regional’naya geotektonika: Al’piiskii Sredizemnomorskii poyas (Regional Geotectonics: The Alpine Mediterranean Belt), Moscow: Nedra, 1984.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khain, V.E., Tektonika kontinentov i okeanov (god 2000) (The Tectonics of Continents and Oceans for the Year 2000), Moscow: Nauch. mir, 2001.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kober, L., Tektonische Geologie, Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1942.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kuzin, A.M., Space–phase localization of hydrocarbon deposits and reflection of the fluidization convergence in the Earth crust according to seismic data, in Degazatsiya Zemli i genezis neftegazovykh mestorozhdenii (Degassing of the Earth and Genesis of Hydrocarbon Deposits), Moscow: GEOS, 2011, pp. 276–301.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lacan, P. and Ortuño, M., Active tectonics of the Pyrenees: A review, J. Iber. Geol., 2012, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lukk, A.A. and Shevchenko, V.I., The character of deformation of the Earth crust of the Garm region (Tadzhikistan) according to geological and seismological data, Fiz. Zemli, 1986, no. 7, pp. 16–33.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lukk, A.A. and Shevchenko, V.I., Structure of the seismic field and fault tectonics of the Garm region in Tadzhikistan, Fiz. Zemli, 1990, no. 1, pp. 5–20.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lukk, A.A. and Shevchenko, V.I., Implications of local tectogenesis for the deformation of layered sequences in the Tajik Depression, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2004, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 897–916.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lukk, A.A. and Shevchenko, V.I., Island arcs, deep-sea trenches, and seismofocal zones of Indonesia and the Pacific Ocean: Similarity and distinctions, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2008, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 85–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lukk, A.A. and Shevchenko, V.I., Peculiarity of the relationship between the seismicity and tectonic structure of the Pyrenees, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2018, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 415–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lukk, A.A., Leonova, V.G., and Shevchenko, V.I., Seismotectonic characteristics of the northern flank and axial part of the Tajik Depression (the Garm geodynamic research area), Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2008, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 965–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mattauer, M. and Henry, J., Pyrenees, Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Publ., 1974, vol. 4, pp. 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mezhdunarodnaya tektonicheskaya karta Evropy (International Tectonic Map of Europe), Scale 1 : 2 500 000, Moscow: Min-vo geologii SSSR, 1981.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Müller, B., Zoback, M.L., Fuchs, K., Mastin, L., Gregersen, S., Pavoni, N., Stephansson, O., and Ljunggren, C., Regional patterns of tectonic stress in Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 1992, vol. 97, no. B8, pp. 11783–11803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Papazachos, B.C. and Kiratzi, A.A., Type of faulting and seismic deformation in the Hellenic arc, in Seismicity of the Carpathian–Balkan Region: Proc. XV Congress of Carpatho–Balkan Association, Athens, 1996, pp. 41–45.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Papazachos, B.C. and Papazachou, C.B., The Earthquakes of Greece, Thessaloniki: Ziti, 1997.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prilepin, M.T. and Shevchenko, V.I., Geodynamics of the Mediterranean from GPS data, Geotektonika. 2005, no. 6, pp. 19–31.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rebetskii, Yu.L., Geomechanical bases of the tectonophysical study of natural stress, in Sovremennaya tektonofizika: Metody i rezul’taty (Modern Tectonophysics: Methods and Results), Moscow: IFZ RAN, 2017, pp. 9–38.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ricou, L.E., Dercourt, J., Geyssant, J., Grandjacquet, C., Lepvrier, C., and Biju-Duval, B., Geological constrains on the alpine evolution of the Mediterranean Tethys, Tectonophysics, 1986, vol. 123, nos. 1–4, pp. 83–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rigo, A., Vernant, P., Feigl, K.L., Goula, X., Khazaradze, G., Talaya, J., Morel, L., Nicolas, J., Baize, S., Chery, J., and Sylvander, M., Present-day deformation of the Pyrenees revealed by GPS surveying and earthquake focal mechanisms until 2011, Geophys. J. Int., 2015, vol. 201, pp. 947–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roure, F., Choukroune, P., Berastegul, X., Muñoz, J.A., Villien, A., Matheron, P., Bareyt, M., Seguret, M., Camara, P., and Deramond, J., ECORS deep seismic data and balanced cross section: Geometric constraints on the evolution of the Pyrenees, Tectonics, 1989, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sass, P., Ritter, O., Ratschbacher, L., Tympel, J., Matiukov, V.E., Rybin, A.K., and Batalev, V.Yu., Resistivity structure underneath the Pamir and Southern Tien Shan, Geophys. J. Int., 2014, vol. 198, pp. 564–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaw, B. and Jackson, J., Earthquake mechanisms and active tectonics of the Hellenic subduction zone, Geophy-s. J. Int., 2010, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 966–984.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shevchenko, V.I., The role of overthrust faults in the structure of Central Caucasus, Sov. Geol., 1973, no. 5, pp. 107–114.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Proiskhozhdenie struktur gorizontal’nogo szhatiya v skladchatom sooruzhenii (The Origin of Horizontal Compression Structures in a Folded Edifice), Moscow: Nauka, 1984.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shevchenko, V.I., On the possible role of some processes of lithogenesis in the formation of tectonic dislocation of subhorizontal compression, Byull. MOIP, Geol., 1999, no. 3, pp. 14–25.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shevchenko, V.I., The Mediterranean–Caucasus: Plate-tectonic and geosynclinal concepts, Byull. MOIP, Geol., 2005, no. 4, pp. 21–29.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Lukk, A.A., and Guseva, T.V., Geology, geodesy, and seismicity of the great basin, basin and range province United States, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 1996, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 705–727.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Guseva, T.V., Lukk, A.A., Mishin, A.V., Prilepin, M.T., Reilinger, R.E., Hamburger, M.W., Shempelev, A.G., and Yunga, S.L., Recent geodynamics of the Caucasus Mountains from GPS and seismological evidence, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 1999, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 691–704.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Lukk, A.A., and Prilepin, M.T., Geodynamics of the Aegean Sea and surrounding mountains in the Mediterranean mobile belt, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2000, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 833–849.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Dobrovol’skii, I.P., and Lukk, A.A., The stress–strain state of the lithosphere in the Aegean sector of the Mediterranean mobile belt, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2001, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1015–1026.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Lukk, A.A., and Prilepin, M.T., The Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, as an event unrelated to the plate-tectonic process in the lithosphere, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2006, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1018–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Aref’ev, S.S., and Lukk, A.A., Subvertical clusters of earthquake hypocenters unrelated to the tectonic structure of the Earth’s crust, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2011a, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 276–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Guseva, T.V., Lukk, A.A., and Prilepin, M.T., Urals: plate-tectonic or autonomous geodynamics?, Byull. MOIP, Geol., 2011b, no. 3, pp. 11–20.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Lukk, A.A., Prilepin, M.T., and Reilinger, R.E., Present-day geodynamics of the Mediterranean–Lesser Caucasus part of the Alpine–Indonesian mobile belt, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2014, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 38–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Guseva, T.V., Lukk, A.A., Prilepin, M.T., Steblov, G.M., Milyukov, V.K., Mironov, A.P., Kusraev, A.G., Drobyshev, V.N., and Khubaev, Kh.M., Nonplate-tectonic GPS-geodynamics of the Greater Caucasus, in Tektonika, geodinamika i rudogenez skladchatykh poyasov i platform: Materialy XLVIII Tekton. soveshch. (Tectonics, Geodynamics, and Orogenesis of Folded Belts and Platforms: Proceedings of the XLVIII Meeting on Tectonics), Moscow: GEOS, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 295–299.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shevchenko, V.I., Lukk, A.A., and Guseva, T.V., Avtonomnaya i pleittektonicheskaya geodinamiki nekotorykh podvizhnykh poyasov i sooruzhenii (Autonomous and Plate-Tectonic Geodynamics of Some Mobile Belts and Edifices), Moscow: GEOS, 2017.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shukrun, P. and Segyure, M., The tectonics of the Pyrenees: The role of compression and gravity, in Sila tyazhesti i tektonika (Gravity and Tectonics), Moscow: Mir, 1976, pp. 154–168.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shukrun, P. and Mattauer, M., The Pyrenees, in Tektonika Evropy i smezhnykh oblastei. Varistsidy, epipaleozoiskie platformy, al’pidy (The Tectonics of Europe and Neighboring Regions. Variscides, Epipaleozoan Platforms, and Alpides), Moscow: Nauka, 1978, pp. 306–314.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sylvander, M., Sourian, A., Rigo, A., Tocheport, A., Toutain, J.-P., Ponsolles, C., and Benahmed, S., The 2006 November, M L = 5.0 earthquake near Lourdes (France): New evidence for NS extension the Pyrenees, Geophys. J. Int., 2008, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 564–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Taymaz, T., Jackson, J., and Westaway, R., Earthquake mechanisms in the Hellenic trench near Crete, G-eophys. J. Int., 1990, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 695–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Teixel, A., The anso transect of the southern Pyrenees: Basement and cover thrust geometries, J. Geol. Soc. London, 1996, vol. 153, pp. 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vissers, R.L.M. and Meijer, P.Th., Iberian plate kinematics and Alpine collision in the Pyrenees, Earth-Sci. Rev., 2012, nos. 1–2, pp. 61–83.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vissers, R.L.M., van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., van der Meer, D.G., and Spakman, W., Cretaceous slab break-off in the Pyrenees: Iberian platekinematics in paleomagnetic and mantle reference frames, Gondwana Res., 2016, vol. 34, pp. 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yunga, S.L., Metody i rezul’taty izucheniya seismotektonicheskikh deformatsii (Methods and Results of Seismotectonic Deformation Studies), Moscow: Nauka, 1990.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zoback, M.L., First- and second-order patterns of stress in the lithosphere: The world stress map project, J. Geophys. Res., 1992, vol. 97, no. B8, pp. 11703–11728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zoback, M.L., Zoback, M.D., Adams, J., Assumpcao, M., Bell, S., Bergman, E.A., Blumling, P., Brereton, N.R., et al., Global patterns of tectonic stress, Nature, 1989, vol. 341, no. 6240, pp. 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. I. Shevchenko
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. V. Guseva
    • 1
  • I. P. Dobrovolsky
    • 1
  • I. S. Krupennikova
    • 1
  • A. A. Lukk
    • 1
  1. 1.Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations