Estimation of water-vapor and ozone transport in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere and fluxes through the tropopause during the field campaign at the Sodankyla station (Finland)
Processes of mass exchange through the tropopause at extratropical latitudes are studied. For this purpose, balloon data on ozone and water vapor obtained during the LAUTLOS field campaign were analyzed and a trajectory model was used to analyze the origin of air masses and to calculate fluxes through the tropopause. The results of observations and trajectory modeling showed that tropospheric air masses penetrated into the stratosphere by no more than ∼2.5 km above the tropopause level during the campaign. Both tropospheric and stratospheric particles are present in this mixing layer. Backward trajectories showed that, at the anticyclone boundary, tropospheric air penetrates into the stratosphere in the form of fine fibrous structures (filaments). The fluxes through the tropopause were also quantitatively estimated by the Wei method with the use of forward and backward trajectories. The spatial structure of the fluxes through the tropopause coincides with the regions of the tropopause inclination and its folds. The absolute values of the fluxes calculated with the use of the Wei method decrease, depending on the length of trajectories at the expense of the filtering-out of a shallow reversible exchange. It is shown that the exchange depth can be controlled by both vertical fluxes in the troposphere and changes in the level of the tropopause itself. The use of isentropic and three-dimensional trajectories made it possible to estimate the contribution of nonadiabatic processes to the stratosphere-troposphere exchange.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 10.V. A. Yushkov, A. N. Luk’yanov, S. M. Khaikin, et al., “Vertical Distribution of Water Vapor in the Arctic Stratosphere in January–February 2004 from Data of the LAUTLOS Field Campaign,” Izv. Akad. Nauk, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 41, 622–639 (2005) [Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 563–570 (2005)].Google Scholar
- 12.M. Buker, L, M. H. Hitchman, G. J. Tripoli, et al., “Resolution Dependence of Cross-Tropopause Ozone Transport over East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004739, D03107 (2005).Google Scholar
- 15.M. R. Schoeberl, “Extratropical Stratosphere-Troposphere Mass Exchange,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004525, D13303 (2004).Google Scholar