Structure of the mesoscale variability of the troposphere and stratosphere found from radio refraction measurements via CHAMP satellites
Data of an experiment on radio occultation sounding of the atmosphere with the use of GPS signals were used to obtain global distributions of the variances of mesoscale variations in the refractive index in the troposphere and stratosphere. The experiment was carried out with the CHAMP satellite during the period 2001–2005. Measured vertical profiles were smoothed inside 5–10-km-thick layers centered at different altitudes in the troposphere and stratosphere with the use of second-degree polynomials. Deviations from the smoothed quantities and the corresponding variances were obtained for each profile and averaged for each month during the analyzed interval of the CHAMP experiment. Altitude-longitude-latitude inhomogeneities in the distribution of refractive index variances were analyzed. Altitude and latitude distributions of maxima and minima of refractive index variances depend on altitude and season. Turbulence and acoustic gravity waves can be the causes of small-scale and mesoscale variations in the refractive index of the troposphere and stratosphere. The variances of variations in the refractive index are greater in the regions of tropospheric jet streams and in the zones of near-equatorial deep convection. Atmospheric disturbances increase over mountain systems.
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