Meridional mass and energy fluxes in the vicinity of the Arctic border
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The air exchange between the Arctic and midlatitude regions is one of the processes forming the climate of the whole Northern Hemisphere. Analysis of the wind regime in the vicinity of the Arctic border (70° N) at the boundary between the 20th and 21st (1997–2004) centuries showed significant changes in the conditions of a meridional air transport between the Arctic and midlatitude regions as compared to the previous years (1960–1990). In this study, the wind fluxes of mass and heat (internal) and kinetic energies are estimated without consideration for turbulent and convective processes. The importance of spatial, seasonal, and interannual variations in wind velocity and air temperature in the formation of these fluxes is analyzed. It is shown that, during the period 1997–2004, an advective transport of energy from the northern latitudes occurred in the lower 6-km tropospheric layer at 70° N latitude over almost a whole year. Only in spring (April) did the wind fluxes bring heat energy from the south. The total amount of both heat and kinetic energies transported from the Arctic region in this way during a year is comparable to the mean amount of these energies contained in the whole atmosphere over the area bounded by 70° N latitude. The current spatial and temporal distributions of wind velocity and meridional mass and energy fluxes, which are presented in this study, may serve as additional information for interpreting data obtained from different on-site measurements in Arctic regions.
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