Negative Ca− and Ba− ions of large radius on the surface and in the volume of liquid helium
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Negative Ca− and Ba− ions of large radii on the surface of and in bulk liquid helium have been studied. Our results indicate that these ions are adsorbed on the helium surface. Ions on free liquid helium surfaces have not been studied previously because it was thought impossible to confine them on the surface. Ca− and Ba− ions have very low binding energies, therefore, like electrons, they form a bubble of large radius in bulk helium, whose energy is higher than on the surface. The behavior of ions on the surface exhibits a number of previously unknown features owing to their large masses and strong localization in the horizontal plane. Even in the absence of confining electric field, a hole is formed under an ion due to the polarization attraction between the liquid helium and the charged ion. This hole formation reduces the ion mobility by several orders of magnitude and increases its effective mass severalfold. The critical density of electrons and ions is approximately the same on the surfaces of thin and thick helium films.
KeywordsHelium Horizontal Plane Effective Mass Liquid Helium Large Radius
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