Effect of four-photon interactions on coherent population trapping in Λ-systems
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The resonance fluorescence spectrum of a Λ-system excited by two resonant light fields is calculated using a Markov analysis. Analytical formulas are derived in the strong-field limit within and beyond the rotating wave approximation. It is shown that the resonance fluorescence of the system does not vanish during coherent population trapping. Its spectrum consists of two multiplets which are similar to a triplet in the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a two-level atom and lie at the electronic transition frequencies, together with two triplets located at the frequencies of four-photon processes involving the optical excitation fields. The latter are fundamental in character and impose limits on the lower bound of the dephasing rate for the Raman resonance owing to the effect of radiative decay of the dipole transitions on the dynamics of the ground state. The effect of four-photon dephasing on the absorption spectrum of a Λ-system is analyzed and found to lead to a substantial reduction in the depth of a dip in the absorption spectrum which vanishes as the laser field strength is increased.
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