Merging gauge coupling constants without grand unification

  • F. R. Klinkhamer
  • G. E. Volovik
Fields, Particles, and Nuclei


The merging of the running coupling constants of the weak, strong, and electromagnetic fields does not require the unification of these gauge fields at high energy. It can, in fact, be the property of a general fermionic system in which gauge bosons are not fundamental.

PACS numbers

11.10.Hi 12.10.Kt 12.60.Re 67.90.+z 71.10.−w 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. R. Klinkhamer
    • 1
  • G. E. Volovik
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of Karlsruhe (TH)KarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Low-Temperature LaboratoryHelsinki University of TechnologyHUTFinland
  3. 3.Landau Institute for Theoretical PhysicsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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