On the thermodynamic and quantum fluctuations of the cosmological constant

  • G. E. Volovik
Gravity, Astrophysics


We discuss, from a condensed-matter point of view, the recent idea that the Poisson fluctuations of the cosmological constant about zero could be a source of the observed dark energy [1, 2]. We argue that the thermodynamic fluctuations of Λ are much bigger. Since the amplitude of the fluctuations is ∝ V−1/2, where V is the volume of the universe, the present constraint on the cosmological constant provides a lower limit for V that is much larger than the volume within the cosmological horizon.

PACS numbers

04.60.−m; kw]98.80.Cq 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Padmanabhan, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, L167 (2002); gr-qc/0204020.ADSzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Ahmed, S. Dodelson, P. B. Greene, and R. Sorkin, Phys. Rev. D 69, 103523 (2004); R. Sorkin, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 36, 2759 (1997).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. E. Volovik, The Universe in a Helium Droplet (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2003).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. E. Volovik, gr-qc/0405012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 2nd ed. (Nauka, Moscow, 1964; Pergamon, London, 1959).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Barceló and G. E. Volovik, Pis’ma Zh. Éksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 239 (2004) [JETP Lett. 80, 209 (2004)]; grqc/0405105.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. D. Bjorken, Phys. Rev. D 64, 085008 (2001).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. G. Riess, L.-G. Strolger, J. Tonry, et al., Astrophys. J. 607, 665 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    U. Alam, V. Sahni, T. D. Saini, and A. A. Starobinsky, astro-ph/0311364; U. Alam, V. Sahni, and A. A. Starobinsky, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 0406, 008 (2004); astro-ph/0403687; R. A. Daly and S. G. Djorgovsky, astro-ph/0403664; Astrophys. J. (2004) (in press).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. E. Volovik, in Patterns of Symmetry Breaking, Ed. by H. Arodz, J. Dziarmaga, and W. H. Zurek (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2003), p. 381; gr-qc/0304061.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Gagnon and G. D. Moore, hep-ph/0404196.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. D. Bjorken, Phys. Rev. D 67, 043508 (2003).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica" 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. E. Volovik
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Low Temperature LaboratoryHelsinki University of TechnologyFinland
  2. 2.Landau Institute for Theoretical PhysicsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations