Topological phase in a nonparaxial Gaussian beam
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An analysis is made of the structure and evolution of the singularities of a nonparaxial Gaussian beam. It is shown that a Gaussian beam may be represented by a family of straight lines lying on the surface of a hyperboloid and that the wavefront of this beam is a function of a point source situated at a point on the z axis with the imaginary coordinate iz0. The argument of this complex function is the topological phase of the beam which characterizes the rotation of the wavefront. The singularities of a nonparaxial Gaussian beam are located in the focal plane and are annular edge dislocations. Dislocation processes near the constriction of the Gaussian beam only occur as a result of aperture diffraction.
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