Dynamics of field dislocations and disclinations in a few-mode fiber. IV. Formation of an optical vortex
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The physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of an optical vortex in the field of a few-mode fiber have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. In an optical fiber with a parabolic refractive index profile an optical vortex is formed as a result of interaction between circularly polarized rotating pure edge dislocations of circularly polarized even and odd CP11 modes. In a stepped-index fiber the formation of an optical vortex is also related to the simultaneous propagation of even and odd modes. The fields of these modes alter their structure over the fiber length and are not manifested by rotating edge dislocations. It has been found experimentally that a stable vortex does not alter its degree of polarization of the field at fiber lengths greater than 10 m. An unstable vortex, for which the product of the spin and the topological charge is always less than zero, periodically decays and recovers at a beat length of 0.65 m. It is noted that a stable optical vortex cannot be formed by orthogonally polarized LP11 modes. This is because an optical vortex transfers additional angular momentum like the CP11 modes whereas the LP11 modes do not transfer additional angular momentum of the field.
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