Blood flow in the large systemic arteries is modeled using one-dimensional equations derived from the axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations for flow in compliant and tapering vessels. The arterial tree is truncated after the first few generations of large arteries with the remaining small arteries and arterioles providing outflow boundary conditions for the large arteries. By modeling the small arteries and arterioles as a structured tree, a semi-analytical approach based on a linearized version of the governing equations can be used to derive an expression for the root impedance of the structured tree in the frequency domain. In the time domain, this provides the proper outflow boundary condition. The structured tree is a binary asymmetric tree in which the radii of the daughter vessels are scaled linearly with the radius of the parent vessel. Blood flow and pressure in the large vessels are computed as functions of time and axial distance within each of the arteries. Comparison between the simulations and magnetic resonance measurements in the ascending aorta and nine peripheral locations in one individual shows excellent agreement between the two. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society.
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Olufsen, M.S., Peskin, C.S., Kim, W.Y. et al. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Blood Flow in Arteries with Structured-Tree Outflow Conditions. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28, 1281–1299 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1114/1.1326031