Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 1218–1228 | Cite as

Current Distribution in Skeletal Muscle Activated by Functional Electrical Stimulation: Image-Series Formulation and Isometric Recruitment Curve

  • L. M. Livshitz
  • P. D. Einziger
  • J. Mizrahi


The present work develops an analytical model that allows one to estimate the current distribution within the whole muscle and the resulting isometric recruitment curve (IRC). The quasistatic current distribution, expressed as an image series, i.e., a collection of properly weighted and shifted point-source responses, outlines an extension for more than three layers of the classical image theory in conductive plane-stratified media. Evaluation of the current distribution via the image series expansions requires substantially less computational time than the standard integral representation. The expansions use a unique recursive representation for Green's function, that is a generic characteristic of the stratification. This approach permits one to verify which of the tissue electrical properties are responsible for the current density distribution within the muscle, and how significant their combinations are. In addition, the model permits one to study the effect of different electrode placement on the shape and the magnitude of the potential distribution. A simple IRC model was used for parameter estimation and model verification by comparison with experimentally obtained isometric recruitment curves. Sensitivity of the model to different parameters such as conductivity of the tissues and activation threshold was verified. The resulting model demonstrated characteristic features that were similar to those of experimentally obtained data. The model also quantitatively confirmed the differences existing between surface (transcutaneous) and implanted (percutaneous) electrode stimulation. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society.

PAC00: 8719Ff, 8754Dt, 8719Nn, 8717Nn

Functional electrical stimulation Nonhomogeneous medium Green's function Current distribution Image series Volume conductor Isometric recruitment curve (IRC) 


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Livshitz
    • 1
  • P. D. Einziger
    • 2
  • J. Mizrahi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, TechnionIsrael Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, TechnionIsrael Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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