According to traditional belief, prolonged wakefulness during the day is followed by brain rest at night in the form of sleep. This passive theory of sleep was replaced by the active sleep genesis concept, mainly after the realization that brain activity is only slightly reduced during sleep. There is now growing evidence to suggest that sleep is auto-regulatory and that it is not necessary to attribute sleep genesis to either an active or a passive mechanism.
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Kumar, V.M. Sleep is neither a passive nor an active phenomenon. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 8, 163–169 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2010.00445.x