Advertisement

Sleep and Biological Rhythms

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 110–119 | Cite as

A sleep and life-style survey of Japanese high school boys: Factors associated with frequent exposure to bright nocturnal light

  • Makoto HondaEmail author
  • Michiko Genba
  • Junko Kawakami
  • Aya Nishizono-Maher
Original Article

Abstract

Shortened nocturnal sleep is a growing social phenomenon in industrialized countries. The Japanese high school student, with an average of 6.3 h sleep, is an extreme example. A recent feature in Japanese adolescents’ life-style is a pattern of frequent exposure to bright nocturnal light, which is believed to bear considerable impact on their sleep habits. The details of this impact, however, remain unspecified and invite clarification. To determine the factors associated with this particular behavioral pattern we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of high school boys using a questionnaire on their sleep habits, sleep problems, subjective daytime complaints and life-styles, including the frequency of their nocturnal visits to convenience stores. A total of 2160 valid answers were analyzed (response rate 97.1%). We divided the students into four groups according to the frequency of their exposure to bright nocturnal light. The 7.5% of students who visited convenience stores almost every night had a delayed bedtime and a shorter time asleep. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed that this pattern was independently associated with total sleep time, daytime sleepiness, school-home commuting time, school grades and frequency of breakfast. Further studies are required to evaluate the contribution of other psychological and biological factors affecting circadian phase delay. However, our results showed the probable involvement of circadian rhythm alterations underlying the life-style difference observed in these students. Education in sleep including appropriate nocturnal use of convenience stores is required for effective school health-care practice.

Key words

epidemiology high school life-style bright nocturnal light exposure sleep habit 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Tagaya H, Uchiyama M, Ohida T et al. Sleep habits and factors associated with short sleep duration among Japanese high-school students: A community study. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 2004; 2: 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Owens J, Maxim R, Mcguinn M et al. Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics 1999; 104: e27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S et al. Association between television viewing and sleep problems during adolescence and early adulthood. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2004; 158: 562–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li S, Jin X, Wu S et al. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep 2007; 30: 361–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asaoka S, Fukuda K, Tsutsui Y et al. Does television viewing cause delayed and/or irregular sleep-wake patterns? Sleep Biol. Rhythms 2007; 5: 23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takeuchi H, Hino N, Iwanaga A et al. Light conditions during sleep period and sleep-related lifestyle in Japanese students. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2001; 55: 221–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harada T, Morikuni M, Yoshii S et al. Usage of mobile phone in the evening or at night makes Japanese students evening-typed and night sleep uncomfortable. Sleep Hypnosis 2002; 4: 149–53.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harada T, Takeuchi H. If they use convenience store and mobile phones in the evening or at night and watch late night TV, do Japanese children show a shortage of sleep duration? Jpn. J. Clin. Dent. Child 2003; 8: 57–67. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aoki H, Yamada N, Ozeki Y et al. Minimum light intensity required to suppress nocturnal melatonin concentration in human saliva. Neurosci. Lett. 1998; 252: 91–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valdez P, Ramirez C, Garcia A. Delaying and extending sleep during weekends: Sleep recovery or circadian effect? Chronobiol. Int. 1996; 13: 191–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manber R, Bootzin RR, Acebo C et al. The effects of regularizing sleep-wake schedules on daytime sleepiness. Sleep 1996; 19: 432–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rains JC, Poceta JS. Headache and sleep disorders: review and clinical implications for headache management. Headache 2006; 46: 1344–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carskadon MA, Vieira C, Acebo C. Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep 1993; 16: 258–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA, Acebo C et al. Evidence for the validity of a sleep habits survey for adolescents. Sleep 2003; 26: 213–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaneita Y, Ohida T, Osaki Y et al. Insomnia among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide representative survey. Sleep 2006; 29: 1543–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohida T, Osaki Y, Doi Y et al. An epidemiologic study of self-reported sleep problems among Japanese adolescents. Sleep 2004; 27: 978–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giannotti F, Cortesi F, Sebastiani T et al. Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence. J. Sleep Res. 2002; 11: 191–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taylor DJ, Jenni OG Acebo C et al. Sleep tendency during extended wakefulness: insights into adolescent sleep regulation and behavior. J. Sleep Res. 2005; 14: 239–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Russo PM, Bruni O, Lucidi F et al. Sleep habits and circadian preference in Italian children and adolescents. J. Sleep Res. 2007; 16: 163–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park YM, Matsumoto K, Seo YJ et al. Sleep and chronotype for children in Japan. Percept. Mot. Skills 1999; 88: 1315–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makoto Honda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michiko Genba
    • 2
    • 3
  • Junko Kawakami
    • 2
    • 4
  • Aya Nishizono-Maher
    • 2
  1. 1.Research on the Cause and Treatment of Sleep DisordersTokyo Institute of PsychiatryTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Research for the Promotion of Child and Adolescent Mental HealthTokyo Institute of PsychiatryTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of EducationToyo UniversityTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Humanities and SciencesOchanomizu UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations