Graw P, Krauchi K, Knoblauch V, Wirz-Justice A, Cajochen C. Circadian and wake-dependent modulation of fastest and slowest reaction times during the psychomotor vigilance task. Physiol. Behav. 2004; 80: 695–701.
Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd et al. Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions. J. Sleep Res. 1997; 6: 9–18.
Wright KP Jr, Hull JT, Czeisler CA. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2002; 283: R1370–7.
Leger D. The cost of sleep-related accidents: a report for the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Sleep 1994; 17: 84–93.
Smith CS, Robie C, Folkard S et al. A process model of shiftwork and health. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 1999; 4: 207–18.
Smith L, Folkard S, Poole CJ. Increased injuries on night shift. Lancet 1994; 344: 1137–9.
Rosekind MR, Smith RM, Miller DL et al. Alertness management: strategic naps in operational settings. J. Sleep Res. 1995; 4: 62–6.
Akerstedt T, Peters B, Anund A, Kecklund G. Impaired alertness and performance driving home from the night shift: a driving simulator study. J. Sleep Res. 2005; 14: 17–20.
Stutts JC, Wilkins JW, Scott Osberg J, Vaughn BV. Driver risk factors for sleep-related crashes. Accid. Anal. Prev. 2003; 35: 321–31.
Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Consolidated and distributed nap schedules and performance. J. Sleep Res. 1995; 4: 71–7.
Bonnet MH, Gomez S, Wirth O, Arand DL. The use of caffeine versus prophylactic naps in sustained performance. Sleep 1995; 18: 97–104.
Czeisler CA, Weitzman E, Moore-Ede MC, Zimmerman JC, Knauer RS. Human sleep: its duration and organization depend on its circadian phase. Science 1980; 210: 1264–7.
Dinges DF, Pack F, Williams K et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4–5 hours per night. Sleep 1997; 20: 267–77.
Jewett ME, Dijk DJ, Kronauer RE, Dinges DF. Dose-response relationship between sleep duration and human psychomotor vigilance and subjective alertness. Sleep 1999; 22: 171–9.
Torsvall L, Akerstedt T, Gillander K, Knutsson A. Sleep on the night shift: 24-hour EEG monitoring of spontaneous sleep/wake behavior. Psychophysiology 1989; 26: 352–8.
Akerstedt T, Folkard S. Validation of the S and C components of the three-process model of alertness regulation. Sleep 1995; 18: 1–6.
Akerstedt T, Folkard S. The three-process model of alertness and its extension to performance, sleep latency, and sleep length. Chronobiol. Int. 1997; 14: 115–23.
Costa G, Akerstedt T, Nachreiner F et al. Flexible work hours, health and well-being in the European Union: preliminary data from a SALTSA project. J. Hum. Ergol. (Tokyo) 2001; 30: 27–33.
Folkard S, Akerstedt T, Macdonald I, Tucker P, Spencer MB. Beyond the three-process model of alertness: estimating phase, time on shift, and successive night effects. J. Biol. Rhythms 1999; 14: 577–87.
Akerstedt T, Folkard S. Predicting sleep latency from the three-process model of alertness regulation. Psychophysiology 1996; 33: 385–9.
Minors DS, Waterhouse JM. Circadian rhythms and their application to occupational health and medicine. Rev. Environ. Health 1987; 7: 1–64.
Rogers AS, Spencer MB, Stone BM, Nicholson AN. The influence of a 1 h nap on performance overnight. Ergonomics 1989; 32: 1193–205.
Sallinen M, Harma M, Akerstedt T, Rosa R, Lillqvist O. Promoting alertness with a short nap during a night shift. J. Sleep Res. 1998; 7: 240–7.
Rosekind MR, Gander PH, Miller DL et al. Fatigue in operational settings: examples from the aviation environment. Hum. Factors 1994; 36: 327–38.
Purnell MT, Feyer AM, Herbison GP. The impact of a nap opportunity during the night shift on the performance and alertness of 12-h shift workers. J. Sleep Res. 2002; 11: 219–27.
Della Rocco P, Comperatore C, Caldwell L, Cruz C. The Effects of Napping on Night Shift Performance. Federal Aviation Administration, US Department of Transportation. Washington, DC: National Technical Information Service, 2000. Report No. DOT/FAA/AM-00/10.
Cruz C, Della Rocco P, Hackworth C. Effects of quick rotating shift schedules on the health and adjustment of air traffic controllers. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2000; 71: 400–7.
Bonnefond A, Muzet A, Winter-Dill AS, Bailloeuil C, Bitouze F, Bonneau A. Innovative working schedule: introducing one short nap during the night shift. Ergonomics 2001; 44: 937–45.
Akerstedt T, Knutsson A, Westerholm P, Theorell T, Alfredsson L, Kecklund G. Mental fatigue, work and sleep. J. Psychosom. Res. 2004; 57: 427–33.
Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Level of arousal and the ability to maintain wakefulness. J. Sleep Res. 1999; 8: 247–54.
Dickman SJ. Dimensions of arousal: wakefulness and vigor. Hum. Factors 2002; 44: 429–42.
Hardy GE, Shapiro DA, Borrill CS. Fatigue in the workforce of National Health Service Trusts: levels of symptomatology and links with minor psychiatric disorder, demographic, occupational and work role factors. J. Psychosom. Res. 1997; 43: 83–92.
Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychol. Med. 1979; 9: 139–45.
Maldonado CC, Bentley AJ, Mitchell D. A pictorial sleepiness scale based on cartoon faces. Sleep 2004; 27: 541–8.
Hart SG, Staveland LE. Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): results of empirical and theoretical research. In: Hancock PA, Meshkati N, eds. Human Mental Workload. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1988; 139–83.
Rubio S, Diaz E, Martin J, Puente JM. Evaluation of subjective mental workload: a comparison of SWAT, NASA-TLX, and Workload Profile Methods. Appl. Psychol. Int. Rev. 2004; 53: 61–86.
Thorne DR, Johnson DE, Redmond DP, Sing HC, Belenky G, Shapiro JM. The Walter Reed palm-held psychomotor vigilance test. Behav. Res. Methods 2005; 37: 111–18.
Dinges DF, Powell JW. Microcomputer analyses of performance on a portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 1985; 17: 652–5.
Kribbs NB, Dinges DF. Vigilance decrement and sleepiness. In: Harsh R, Ogilvie RD, eds. Sleep Onset Mechanisms. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994; 113–25.
Wyatt JK, Ritz-De Cecco A, Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. Circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, sleep, and neurobehavioral function in humans living on a 20-h day. Am. J. Physiol. 1999; 277: R1152–63.
Loh S, Lamond N, Dorrian J, Roach G, Dawson D. The validity of psychomotor vigilance tasks of less than 10-minute duration. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 2004; 36: 339–46.
Lamond N, Dorrian J, Burgess H et al. Adaptation of performance during a week of simulated night work. Ergonomics 2004; 47: 154–65.
Lamond N, Dawson D, Roach GD. Fatigue assessment in the field: validation of a hand-held electronic psychomotor vigilance task. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2005; 76: 486–9.
Brooks A, Lack L. A brief afternoon nap following nocturnal sleep restriction: which nap duration is most recuperative? Sleep 2006; 29: 831–40.
Ferrara M, De Gennaro L. The sleep inertia phenomenon during the sleep-wake transition: theoretical and operational issues. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2000; 71: 843–8.
Ferrara M, De Gennaro L, Bertini M. Time-course of sleep inertia upon awakening from nighttime sleep with different sleep homeostasis conditions. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2000; 71: 225–9.
Wesensten NJ, Killgore WD, Balkin TJ. Performance and alertness effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil during sleep deprivation. J. Sleep Res. 2005; 14: 255–66.
Tabachnick B, Fidell L. Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A Manual of Standardized Terminology. Techniques, and Scoring System for Sleep Stages in Human Subjects, 204 Npn edn. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1968.
Horne JA. Sleep loss and “divergent” thinking ability. Sleep 1988; 11: 528–36.
Naitoh P, Kelly T, Babkoff H. Sleep inertia: best time not to wake up? Chronobiol. Int. 1993; 10: 109–18.
Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Impact of naps and caffeine on extended nocturnal performance. Physiol. Behav. 1994; 56: 103–9.
Gillberg M. The effects of two alternative timings of a one-hour nap on early morning performance. Biol. Psychol. 1984; 19: 45–54.
Hayashi M, Masuda A, Hori T. The alerting effects of caffeine, bright light and face washing after a short daytime nap. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2003; 114: 2268–78.
Takahashi M, Nakata A, Haratani T, Ogawa Y, Arito H. Post-lunch nap as a worksite intervention to promote alertness on the job. Ergonomics 2004; 47: 1003–13.