A microscopic bubble generating system (MBGS) has been developed to control dissolved oxygen (DO) levels suitable for fish farming. The MBGS has been tested to confirm its capability in net pens. Water conditions in a fish farm were monitored every two hours from June to October 2004 by setting an online vertical profiling system (OVPS) close to the net pen. DO in the net pen water decreased to physiologically stressful levels for the fish during the night (4.84–5.51 mg/L), while the DO was kept in saturated conditions during the day, due to oxygen supply from phytoplankton. The MBGS was operated from the evening to the morning of the next day for 16 h, to successfully create DO-saturated conditions in the net pen water at night. By using microscopic bubbles during the warm seasons, DO levels in the net pen water could be improved to a level suitable for fish farming. However, the low DO levels (<5.0 mg/L) of the bottom water occasionally extended to the net pen layers, despite the supply of microscopic bubbles to the water. To maintain the DO of the net pen water at levels suitable for fish farming, DO supply to the net pen water and the bottom water needs to be increased, and the organically enriched sediment just below the net pens needs to be treated.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Wu RSS. The environmental impact marine fish culture: towards a sustainable future. Mar. Poll. Bull. 1995; 31: 159–166.
Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. Statistics of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. 2004; [cited 5 December 2004.] Available from URL: http://www.maff.go.jp/toukei/ sokuhou/data/gyogyou-yousyoku2003/gyogyou-yousyoku2003.html.
Brown JR, Gowen RJ, McLusky DS. The effect of salmon farming on the benthos of a Scottish sea loch. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1987; 109: 39–51.
Weston DP. Quantitative examination of macrobenthic community changes along an organic enrichment gradient. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1990; 61: 233–244.
Ye LX, Ritz DA, Fenton GE, Lewis ME. Tracing the influence on sediments of organic waste from a salmonid farm using stable isotope analysis. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1991; 145: 161–174.
Cornel GE, Whoriskey FG. The effects of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cage culture on the water quality, zooplankton, benthos and sediments of Lac du Passage, Quebec. Aquaculture 1993; 109: 101–117.
Hargrave BT, Duplisea DE, Pfeiffer E, Wildish DJ. Seasonal changes in benthic fluxes of dissolved oxygen and ammonium associated with marine cultured Atlantic salmon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1993; 96: 249–257.
Hirata H, Kadowaki S, Ishida S. Evaluation of water quality by observation of dissolved oxygen content in mariculture farms. Bull. Natl. Res. Inst. Aquacult. 1994; (Suppl. 1): 61–65.
Findlay RH, Watling L. Environmental impact of salmon net-pen culture on marine benthic communities in marine; A case study. Estuaries 1995; 18: 145–179.
Tsutsumi H, Kikuchi T. Benthic ecology of a small cove with seasonal oxygen depletion caused by organic pollution. Publ. Amakusa Mar. Biol. Lab. 1983; 7: 17–40.
Tsutsumi H, Kikichi T, Tanaka M, Hgashi T, Imasaka K, Miyazaki M. Benthic faunal succession in a cove organically polluted by fish farming. Mar. Poll. Bull. 1991; 23: 233–238.
Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R. Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioral responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 1985; 33: 245–303. (An annual review).
Murata O. The present conditions of mariculture, red sea bream. In: Kumai O (ed.). Saishin Kaisangyo no Yoshoku (The Latest Marine Fish Culture). Bunshodo, Tokyo. 2000; 89–108 (in Japanese).
Kubota T. Fish net pen culture. In: the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries (ed.). Senkai Yoshoku to Jikaosen (Fish Culture in Coastal Areas and Self-Pollution). Kouseisha-Kouseikaku, Tokyo, 1977; 9–18 (in Japanese).
Kawai A, Kitada H, Maeda H. Restoration techniques of a small area in polluted fish farms. In: Watanabe T (ed.). Coastal Fish Farms and the Environment. Kouseisha-Kouseikaku. Tokyo. 1990; 110–121 (in Japanese).
Kimura H. Restoration techniques of polluted fish farms. In: Watanabe T (ed.). Coastal Fish Farms and the Environment. Kouseisha-Kouseikaku. Tokyo. 1990; 99–109 (in Japanese).
Ruangdej U, Fukami K. Stimulation of photosynthesis and consequent oxygen production in anoxic bottom water by supply of low-intensity light through an optical fiber. Fish. Sci. 2004; 70: 421–429.
Onari H. Fisheries experiment of cultivated shells using micro-bubble techniques. J. Heat Transfer Soc. Jpn. 2001; 40: 2–7.
Takahira H, Okura E, Nagata T. Influence of gas diffusion on the stability and merger of microbubbles. Fifth Int. Symp. on Cavitation (CAV2003), Osaka. 2003; November 1–4: 1–7.
Sadatomi M, Kawahara A, Kano K, Ohtomo A. Performance of a new micro-bubble generator with a spherical body in a flowing water tube. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 2005; 29: 615–623.
Harada T. Yellowtail and amberjack. In: Kawamoto N (ed.). Details of Fish Culture. Kouseisha-Kouseikaku. Tokyo, 1978; 463–503.
Hirata H, Kadowaki S. DO management in coastal fish farms. In: Watanabe T (ed.). Coastal Fish Farms and the Environment. Kouseisha-Kouseikaku, Tokyo. 1990; 28–38 (in Japanese).
Gillibrand PA, Turrell WR, Moore DC, Adams RD. Bottom water stagnation and oxygen depletion in a Scottish Sea Loch. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 1996; 43: 217–235.
La Rosa T, Mirto S, Favaloro E, Savona B, Sara G, Danovaro R, Mazzol A. Impact on the water column biogeochemistry of a Mediterranean mussel and fish farm. Water Res. 2002; 36: 713–721.
Sakami T, Abo K, Takayanagi K, Toda S. Effects of water mass exchange on bacterial communities an aquaculture area during summer. Estuar. Coast Sci. 2003; 56: 111–118.
Yokoyama H. Environmental quality criteria for fish Farms in Japan. Aquaculture 2003; 226: 45–56.
Hall POJ, Anderson LG, Holby O, Kollberg S, Samuelsson M Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. I. Carbon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1990; 61: 61–73.
Tsutsumi H. Impact of fish net pen culture on the benthic environment of a cove in south Japan. Estuaries 1995; 18: 108–115.
Karakassis I, Hatziyanni E, Tsapakis M, Plaiti W. Impact of cage farming of fish on the seabed in three Mediterranean coastal areas. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 2000; 57: 1462–1471.
Holmer M, Marbá N, Terrados J, Duarte CM, Fortes MD. Impact of milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture on carbon and nutrient fluxes in the Bolinao area, Philippines. Mar. Poll. Bull. 2002; 44: 685–696.
Tsutsumi H, Kinoshita K, Srithongouthai S, Sato A, Nagata S, Inoue A, Yoshioka M, Ohwada K, Hama D. Treatment of the organically enriched sediment below the fish farm with the biological activities of artificially mass-cultured colonies of a small deposit feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I.. Benthos Res. 2005; 60: 25–38.
About this article
Cite this article
Srithongouthai, S., Endo, A., Inoue, A. et al. Control of dissolved oxygen levels of water in net pens for fish farming by a microscopic bubble generating system. Fish Sci 72, 485–493 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01176.x
- dissolved oxygen
- fish farming
- microscopic bubble
- online vertical profiling system
- red sea bream