Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 11, pp 1167–1171 | Cite as

Race and gender differences in general internists’ annual incomes

Original Articles

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Specialty, work effort, and female gender have been shown to be associated with physicians’ annual incomes; however, racial differences in physician incomes have not been examined.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of race and gender on General Internists’ annual incomes after controlling for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics.

DESIGN: Retrospective survey-weighted analysis of survey data.

PARTICIPANTS: One thousand seven hundred and forty-eight actively practicing General Internists who responded to the American Medical Association’s annual survey of physicians between 1992 and 2001.

MEASUREMENTS: Work effort, provider and practice characteristics, and adjusted annual incomes for white male, black male, white female, and black female General Internists.

RESULTS: Compared with white males, white females completed 22% fewer patient visits and worked 12.5% fewer hours, while black males and females reported completing 17% and 2.8% more visits and worked 15% and 5.5% more annual hours, respectively. After adjustment for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics, black males’ mean annual income was $188,831 or $7,193 (4%) lower than that for white males (95% CI: −$31,054, $16,669; P=.6); white females’ was $159,415 or $36,609 (19%) lower (95% CI: −$25,585, −$47,633; P<.001); and black females’ was $139,572 or $56,452 (29%) lower (95% CI: −$93,383, −$19,520; P=.003).

CONCLUSIONS: During the 1990s, both black race and female gender were associated with lower annual incomes among General Internists. Differences for females were substantial. These findings warrant further exploration.

Key Words

physician income gender race 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mishel L, Bernstein J, Schmitt J. The State of Working America, 2000–2001. An Economic Policy Institute Book. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, an imprint of Cornell University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Langwell KM. Differences by sex in economic returns associated with physician specialization. J Health Polit Policy Law. 1982;6:752–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ohsfeldt RL, Culler SD. Differences in income between male and female physicians. J Health Econom. 1986;5:335–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carr P, Friedman R, Moskowitz M, Kazis L, Weed H. Research, academic rank, and compensation of women and men faculty in academic general internal medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 1992;7:418–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker L. Differences in earnings between male and female physicians. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:960–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wallace AE, Weeks WB. Differences in income between male and female primary care physicians. J Am Med Women Assoc. 2002;57:180–4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ness R, Ukoli F, Hunt S, et al. Salary equity among male and female internists in Pennsylvania. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:104–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thompson T. Selected characteristics of black physicians in the United States, 1972. JAMA. 1974;229:1758–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gray LC. The geographic and functional distribution of black physicians: some research and policy considerations. Am J Public Health. 1977;67:519–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    AAMC Data Book. Statistical Information Related to Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals. Washington, DC: The Association of American Medical Colleges; 2000.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brotherson SE, Rockey PH, Etzel SI. US graduate medical education, 2004–2005. JAMA. 2005;294:1075–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pasko T, Seidman B, Birkhead S. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US: 2000–2001 Edition. Division of Survey Data Resources. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2000: 338.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corbie-Smith G, Frank E, Nickens H. The intersection of race, gender, and primary care: results from the Women Physicians’ Health Study. J Natl Med Assoc. 2000;92:472–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M. et al. The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1305–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xu G, Fields SK, Laine C, Veloski JJ, Barzansky B, Martini CJ. The relationship between the race/ethnicity of generalist physicians and their care for underserved populations. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:817–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moy E, Bartman BA. Physician race and care of minority and medically indigent patients. JAMA. 1995;273:1515–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1992. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1993. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1993.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1994. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1994.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1995. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1996. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1997.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gonzalez M, ed. Physician Marketplace Statistics, 1997/98. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Center for Health Policy Research; 1998.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang P, Thran S. Physician Socioeconomic Statistics, 1999–2000. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research; 1999.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wassenaar J, Thran S. Physician Socioeconomic Statistics, 2000–2002. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research; 2001.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weeks WB, Wallace AE. Time and money: a retrospective evaluation of the inputs, outputs, efficiency, and incomes of physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:944–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Conrad DA, Maynard C, Cheadle A, et al. Primary care physician compensation method in medical groups: does it influence the use and cost of health services for enrollees in managed care organizations? JAMA. 1998;279:853–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Polackek SW, Siebert WS. The Economics of Earnings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weeks WB, Wallace AE, Wallace MM, Welch HG. A comparison of educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professionals. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1280–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Becker ER, Culler S, Ohsfeldt R. Impact of board certification on physician practice characteristics. J Med Edu. 1985;60:9–15.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weil TP. Attracting qualified physicians to underserved areas. Part 2. Pay physicians more to practice in underserved areas. Physician Exec. 1999;25:53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reschovsky JD, Staiti AB. Physician incomes in rural and urban America. Issue Brief/Center for Studying Health System Change. 2005;92:1–4.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bowen WG, Bok DC. The Shape of the River. Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hadley J, Mitchell JM. The growth of managed care and changes in physicians’ incomes, autonomy, and satisfaction, 1991–1997. Int J Health Care Financ Econom. 2002;2:37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hadley J, Mitchell J. HMO penetration and physicians’ earnings. Med Care. 1999;37:1116–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levy J, Borowitz M, McNeill S, London W, Savord G. Understanding the Medicare Fee Schedule and its impact on physicians under the final rule. Med Care. 1992;30:80-NS93.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weeks WB, Wallace AE. Medicare payment changes and physicians’ incomes. J Health Care Finance. 2002;29:18–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berwick DM. A user’s manual for the IOM’s ‘Quality Chasm’ report. Health Affairs. 2002;21:80–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© the Society of General Internal Medicine 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VA Outcomes Group Research Enhancement Award ProgramWhite River Junction VAMCWhite River JunctionUSA
  2. 2.Dartmouth’s Center for the Evaluative Clinical SciencesDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations