Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 893–895 | Cite as

Improving literacy as a means to reducing health disparities

  • Somnath Saha


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2005. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service; 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guralnik JM, Land KC, Blazer D, Fillenbaum GG, Branch LG. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:110–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sorlie P, Rogot E, Anderson R, Johnson NJ, Backlund E. Black-white mortality differences by family income. Lancet. 1992;340:346–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wong MD, Shapiro MF, Boscardin WJ, Ettner SL. Contribution of major diseases to disparities in mortality. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1585–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schalick LM, Hadden WC, Pamuk E, Navarro V, Pappas G. The widening gap in death rates among income groups in the United States from 1967 to 1986. Int J Health Serv. 2000;30:13–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Witzig R. The medicalization of race: scientific legitimization of a flawed social construct. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:675–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adler NE, Newman K. Sociocconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002;21:60–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams DR, Jackson PB. Social sources of racial disparities in health. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24:325–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bosma H, Schrijvers C, Mackenbach JP. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and importance of perceived control: cohort study. BMJ. 1999;319:1469–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sudore RL, Yaffe K, Satterfield S, et al. Limited literacy and mortality in the elderly: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:806–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Howard DH, Sentell T, Gazmararian JA. The impact of health literacy on sociocconomic and racial differences in health in an elderly population. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:857–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sentell TL, Halpin HA. The importance of adult literacy in understanding health disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:862–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paasche-Orlow MK, Cheng DM, Palepu A, Mili S, Faber V, Samet JH. Health literacy, antiretroviral adherence, and HIV-RNA supression: a longitudinal perspective. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:835–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fang MD, Machtinger EL, Wang F, Schillinger D. Health literacy and anticoagulation-related outcomes among patients taking warfarin. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:841–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baker DW. The meaning and the measure of health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:878–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Franzini L, Ribble JC, Keddle AM. Understanding the Hispanic paradox. Ethn Dis. 2001;11:496–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schillinger D, Barton LR, Karter AJ, Wang F, Adler N. Does literacy mediate the relationship between education and health outcomes? A study of a low-income population with diabetes. Public Health Rep. 2006;121:245–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of General Internal Medicine, Portland VA Medical Center, Department of MedicineOregon Health & Science University, Portland VAMC (P3MED)Portland

Personalised recommendations