BACKGROUND: Effective mentorship is crucial to career development. Strategies to improve the availability of mentors include mentoring multiple mentees at once, compensating mentors, comentoring, and long-distance mentoring.
OBJECTIVE: To describe current trends in mentorship in general Internal Medicine (GIM).
METHODS: We conducted a national cross-sectional web-based survey of GIM mentors, GIM fellowship directors, and GIM National Institutes of Health K24 grant awardees to capture their experiences with mentoring, including compensation for mentorship, multiple mentees, comentorship, and long-distance mentorship. We compared experiences by mentorship funding status, faculty type, academic rank, and sex.
RESULTS: We collected data from 111 mentors (77% male, 54% full professors, and 68% clinician-investigators). Fifty-two (47%) received funding for mentorship. Mentors supervised a median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) of 5 (3, 8) mentees each, and would be willing to supervise a maximum of 6 (4, 10) mentees at once. Compared with mentors without funding, mentors with funding had more current mentees (mean of 8.3 vs 5.1, respectively; P<.001). Full professors had more current mentees than associate or assistant professors (8.0 vs 5.9 vs 2.4, respectively; P=.005). Ninety-four (85%) mentors had experience comentoring, and two-thirds of mentors had experience mentoring from a distance. Although most mentors found long-distance mentoring to be less demanding, most also said it is less effective for the mentee and is personally less fulfilling.
CONCLUSIONS: Mentors in GIM appear to be close to their mentorship capacity, and the majority lack funding for mentorship. Comentoring and long-distance mentoring are common.
mentors education professional internal medicine faculty medical
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Sackett DL. On the determinants of academic success as a clinicianscientist. Clin Invest Med. 2001;24:94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Grigsby RK. Five potential pitfalls for junior faculty at academic health centers. Acad Phys Scientist. May 2004;2–3.Google Scholar
Kupfer DJ, Hyman SE, Schatzburg AF, Pincus HA, Reynolds I, Charles F. Recruiting and retaining future generations of physician scientists in mental health. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2002;59:657–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schapira MM, Kalet A, Schwartz MD, Gerrity MS. Mentorship in general internal medicine: investment in our future. J Gen Intern Med. 1992;7:248–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chin MH, Covinsky KE, McDermott MM, Thomas EJ. Building a research career in general internal medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13:117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner JF, Lanphear BP, Curtis P, Vu KO. Indicators of early research productivity among primary care fellows. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:854–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson VA, Palepu A, Szalacha L, Caswell C, Carr P, Inui T. “Having the right chemistry”: a qualitative study of mentoring in academic medicine. Acad Med. 2003;78:328–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palepu A, Friedman RH, Barnett RC, et al. Junior faculty members’ mentoring relationships and their professional development in U.S. Medical schools. Acad Med. 1998;73:318–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pololi LH, Dennis K, Winn GM, Mitchell J. A needs assessment of medical school faculty: caring for the caretakers. J Contin Educ Health Profession. 2003;23:21–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levinson W, Kaufman K, Clark B, Tolle SW. Mentors and role models for women in academic medicine. West J Med. 1991;154:423–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
De Janasz SC, Sullivan SE. Multiple mentoring in academe: developing the professorial network. J Vocat Behav. 2004;64:263–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne MW, Keefe MR. Building research competence in nursing through mentoring. J Nurs Scholarship. 2002;34:391–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramanan RA, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Silen W, Reede JY. Mentoring in medicine: keys to satisfaction. Am J Med. 2002;112:336–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chew LD, Watanabe JM, Buchwald D, Lessler DS. Junior faculty’s perspectives on mentoring. Acad Med. 2003;78:652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney W. Mentoring over time and distance: creating a new SGIM mentorship program. Precourse Handout for Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting; May, 2003. Available at http://www.sgim.org/AM03Handouts/PT01.pdf. Accessed August 23, 2004.Google Scholar
Tsevat J, Chin MH, Phillips RS, Mangione C. Becoming an effective clinician-investigator mentor. Workshop presentation at Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting; May, 2004. Available at http://www.sgim.org/Handouts/am04/Workshops/WF09.pdf. Accessed August 23, 2004.Google Scholar
Wenger DCK. What makes a model pediatric mentor? Acad Phys Scientist. April 2004;1:4–5.Google Scholar
Setness PA. Mentoring: leaving a legacy of opportunity and responsibility. Postgrad Med (Online). 1996; 100. Available at http://www.postgradmed.com/issues/1996/10_96/ed_oct.htm. Accessed May 7, 2004.Google Scholar
Rabatin JS, Lipkin M Jr., Rubin AS, Schachter A, Nathan M, Kalet A. A year of mentoring in academic medicine: case report and qualitative analysis of fifteen hours of meetings between a junior and senior faculty member. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:569–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connor MP, Bynoe AG, Redfern N, Pokora J, Clarke J. Developing senior doctors as mentors: a form of continuing professional development. Report of an initiative to develop a network of senior doctors as mentors: 1994–99. Med Educ. 2000;34:747–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth LM. The champions project: a two-tiered mentoring approach to faculty development. Acad Med. 2000;75:553–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mark S, Link H, Morahan PS, Pololi LH, Reznik V, Tropez-Sims S. Innovative mentoring programs to promote gender equity in academic medicine. Acad Med. 2001;76:39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pololi LH, Knight SM, Dennis K, Frankel RM. Helping medical school faculty realize their dreams: an innovative, collaborative mentoring program. Acad Med. 2002;77:377–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy BD, Katz JT, Wolf MA, Sillman JS, Handin RI, Dzau VJ. An initiative in mentoring to promote residents’ and faculty members’ careers. Acad Med. 2004;79:845–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
NIH. NIH Guide: Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented research (K24). Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-005.html. Accessed May 7, 2004.Google Scholar