Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 1108–1113 | Cite as

Teaching medical students the important connection between communication and clinical reasoning

  • Donna M. Windish
  • Eboni G. Price
  • Sarah L. Clever
  • Jeffrey L. Magaziner
  • Patricia A. Thomas
Original Articles


BACKGROUND: Medical students are rarely taught how to integrate communication and clinical reasoning. Not understanding the relation between these skills may lead students to undervalue the connection between psychosocial and biomedical aspects of patient care.

OBJECTIVE: To improve medical students’ communication and clinical reasoning and their appreciation of how these skills interrelate in medical practice.

DESIGN: In 2003, we conducted a randomized trial of a curricular intervention at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In a 6-week course, participants learned communication and clinical reasoning skills in an integrative fashion using small group exercises with role-play, reflection and feedback through a structured iterative reflective process.

PARTICIPANTS: Second-year medical students.

MEASUREMENTS: All students interviewed standardized patients who evaluated their communication skills in establishing rapport, data gathering and patient education/counseling on a 5-point scale (1=poor; 5=excellent). We assessed clinical reasoning through the number of correct problems listed and differential diagnoses generated and the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory. Students rated the importance of learning these skills in an integrated fashion.

RESULTS: Standardized patients rated curricular students more favorably in establishing rapport (4.1 vs 3.9; P=.05). Curricular participants listed more psychosocial history items on their problem lists (65% of curricular students listing ≥1 item vs 44% of controls; P=.008). Groups did not differ significantly in other communication or clinical reasoning measures. Ninety-five percent of participants rated the integration of these skills as important.

CONCLUSIONS: Intervention students performed better in certain communication and clinical reasoning skills. These students recognized the importance of biomedical and psychosocial issues in patient care. Educators may wish to teach the integration of these skills early in medical training.

Key Words

communication skills clinical reasoning medical education (undergraduate) reflection, feedback 


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donna M. Windish
    • 1
  • Eboni G. Price
    • 2
  • Sarah L. Clever
    • 3
  • Jeffrey L. Magaziner
    • 3
  • Patricia A. Thomas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineYale Primary Care Residency ProgramNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Division of General Internal Medicine and GeriatricsTulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Division of General Internal MedicineJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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