Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 33–37 | Cite as

Respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a U.S. sample

  • Brent A. Moore
  • Erik M. Augustson
  • Richard P. Moser
  • Alan J. Budney
Original Article


OBJECTIVE: Although a number of studies have examined the respiratory impact of marijuana smoking, such studies have generally used convenience samples of marijuana and tobacco users. The current study examined respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a nationally representative sample while controlling for age, gender, and current asthma.

DESIGN: Analysis of the nationally representative third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

SETTING: U.S. households.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6,728 adults age 20 to 59 who completed the drug, tobacco, and health sections of the NHANES III questionnaire in 1988 and 1994. Current marijuana use was defined as self-reported 100+ lifetime use and at least 1 day of use in the past month.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Self-reported respiratory symptoms included chronic bronchitis, frequent phlegm, shortness of breath, frequent wheezing, chest sounds without a cold, and pneumonia. A medical exam also provided an overall chest finding and a measure of reduced pulmonary functioning. Marijuana use was associated with respiratory symptoms of chronic bronchitis (P=.02), coughing on most days (P=.001), phlegm production (P=.0005), wheezing (P<.0001), and chest sounds without a cold (P=.02).

CONCLUSION: The impact of marijuana smoking on respiratory health has some significant similarities to that of tobacco smoking. Efforts to prevent and reduce marijuana use, such as advising patients to quit and providing referrals for support and assistance, may have substantial public health benefits associated with decreased respiratory health problems.

Key Words

marijuana tobacco smoking respiratory symptoms epidemiology 


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brent A. Moore
    • 1
  • Erik M. Augustson
    • 2
  • Richard P. Moser
    • 3
  • Alan J. Budney
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew Haven
  2. 2.Tobacco Control Research BranchDivision of Cancer Control and Population SciencesUSA
  3. 3.Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population SciencesNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Psychology and PsychiatryUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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