Fisheries Science

, Volume 74, Issue 5, pp 1075–1082 | Cite as

Influence of certain soybean antinutritional factors supplemented to a casein-based semipurified diet on intestinal and liver morphology in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Yasuro Iwashita
  • Takeshi Yamamoto
  • Hirofumi Furuita
  • Tsuyoshi Sugita
  • Nobuhiro SuzukiEmail author


To investigate the cause of morphological changes occurring in the liver and intestine of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed defatted soybean meal (SBM)-based non-fish meal diets, morphological observations were conducted on fish fed casein-based semipurified diets supplemented with soybean antinutritional factors (soya saponin, soya isoflavone, soya lectin, oligosaccharide, Ca-phytate and their mixture). Hepatocytes and the epithelial cells in the hepatic ducts were not atrophied in any of the treatments. Lack of microvilli and pinocytotic vacuoles, and fatty degeneration of the epithelial cells were observed in the distal intestine of fish fed diets containing soya saponin. The proliferation of connective tissue in the mucosal folds and submucosa was shown in the distal intestine of fish fed the diet containing all substances including lectin. These results suggest that both saponin and lectin are the responsible factors in SBM for the occurrence of morphological changes of the distal intestine in rainbow trout fed SBM-based diets.

Key Words

antinutritional factor intestine lectin morphology Oncorhynchus mykiss saponin soybean meal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bureau DP, Harris AM, Cho CY. The effects of purified alcohol extracts from soy products on feed intake and growth of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 1998; 161: 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suzuki N, Yamamoto T. Histological observations of intestinal degeneration of defatted soybean meal diet and supplemental effect of soybean lecithin for fingerling rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. Sch. Mar. Sci. Technol. Tokai Univ. 2004; 2 (3): 25–36.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ostaszewska T, Dabrowski K, Palacios ME, Olejniczak M, Wieczorek M. Growth and morphological changes in the digestive tract of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) due to casein replacement with soybean proteins. Aquaculture 2005; 245: 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamamoto T, Suzuki N, Furuita H, Sugita T, Tanaka N, Goto T. Supplemental effect of bile salts to soybean meal-based diet on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish. Sci. 2007; 73: 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iwashita Y, Yamamoto T, Goto T, Suzuki N. Histological observation of liver and distal intestine of fingerling rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed defatted soybean meal based non-fish meal diet supplemented with gall powder. Aquacult. Sci. 2007; 55: 225–230.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson RL, Wolf WJ. Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing. J. Nutr. 1995; 125 (Suppl.): 581S-588S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cummings JH, Englyst HN, Wiggins HS. The role of carbohydrates in lower gut function. Nutr. Rev. 1986; 44: 50–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pusztai A. Biological effect of dietary lectin. In: Huisman J, van der Poel TFB, Liner IE (eds). Recent Advances of Research in Antinutritional Factors in Legume Seeds: Animal Nutrition, Feed Technology, Analytical Methods: Proceeding from 1st International Workshop ‘Antinutritional Factors (ANF) in Legume Seeds’, 23–25 November 1988, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1989; 17–29.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 2001; 199: 197–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van den Ingh TSGAM, Olli JJ, Krogdahl Å. Alcohol-soluble components in soybeans cause morphological changes in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.. J. Fish Dis. 1996; 19: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yamamoto T, Goto T, Tanaka N, Furuita H, Sugita T, Suzuki N. Supplemental effect of essential amino acids and bile salts to a high-fat diet containing soybean meal, corn gluten meal and squid meal for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquacult. Sci. 2007; 55: 115–123.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krogdahl Å, Bakker-McKellep AM, Baeverfjord G. Effect of graded levels of soybean meal on intestinal structure, mucosal enzyme activities, and pancreatic response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult. Nutr. 2003; 9: 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamagishi T. Starch. In: Yamauchi F, Ookubo K (eds). Daizu no Kagaku. Asakura Shoten, Tokyo. 1992, 48–54 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Refstie S, Storebakken T, Roem AJ. Feed consumption and conversion in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with fish meal, extracted soybean meal or soybean meal with reduced content of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, lectins and soya antigens. Aquaculture 1998; 162: 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Romarheim OH, Skrede A, Penn M, Mydland LT, Krogdahl Å, Storebakken T, Lipid digestibility, bile drainage and development of morphological intestinal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing defatted soybean meal. Aquaculture 2008; 274: 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HPS, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br. J. Nutr. 2002; 88: 587–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hendriks HGCJM, van den Ingh TSGAM, Krogdahl Å, Olli J, Koninkx JFJG. Binding of soybean agglutinin to small intestinal brush border membranes and brush border membrane enzyme activities in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 1990; 91: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bloom W, Fawcett DW. Intestine. In: Bloom W, Fawcett DW (eds). A Textbook of Histology, 9th edn. Asian edn. Igaku Shoin, Tokyo. 1969; 560–581.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Watanabe Y. An ultrastructural study of intracellular digestion of horse radish peroxidase by the rectal epithelium cells in larvae of a freshwater cottid fish, Cottus nozawae. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 1984; 50: 409–416.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suzuki N. Electron microscopic study on intestinal epithelium of marine teleost, Acanthogobius flavimanus with reference to the adaptive functions. Bull. Nansei Natl. Fish. 1993; 26: 113–132.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baeverfjord G, Krogdahl Å. Development and regression of soybean meal induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., distal intestine: a comparison with the intestines of fasted fish. J. Fish Dis. 1996; 19: 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaushik SJ, Cravedi JP, Lalles JP, Sumpter J, Fauconneau B, Laroche M. Partial or total replacement of fish meal by soybean protein utilization, potential estrogenic or antigenic effects, cholesterolemia and flesh quality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 1995; 133: 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuro Iwashita
    • 1
  • Takeshi Yamamoto
    • 2
  • Hirofumi Furuita
    • 2
  • Tsuyoshi Sugita
    • 2
  • Nobuhiro Suzuki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of fisheries, Graduate School of Marine Science and TechnologyTokai UniversityShimizu, ShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Feed Research Group, Inland Station, National Research Institute of AquacultureFisheries Research AgencyTamaki, MieJapan

Personalised recommendations