Multigenerational effects of 17β-estradiol and nonylphenol on euryhaline cladoceran Diaphanosoma celebensis
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The effects of parental exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on life history parameters of three successive generations of the euryhaline cladoceran Diaphanosoma celebensis were assessed under laboratory conditions. Less than 24-h-old neonates (P) were exposed to five sublethal concentrations of E2 (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and 4-NP (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 μg/L) at 25°C. Age at first reproduction, reproductive period, fecundity and lifespan were investigated. Successive generations (F1–F3) were monitored further in the absence of toxicants. Results showed that cladocerans exposed to 10–1000 μg/L E2 produced more neonates at a younger age compared to the control. The same effects were also observed in the F1 and F2 but ceased in F3. Cladocerans exposed to 1 μg/L 4-NP also produced significantly more neonates compared to the control, but this effect was not found in successive generations. The results suggest that vertebrate hormone can modify the reproduction of D. celebensis, and the effects are multigenerational.
Key Words17β-estradiol Diaphanosoma celebensis multigenerational effect nonylphenol
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