Fisheries Science

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 257–262 | Cite as

Immunostimulatory effects of fermented vegetable product on the non-specific immunity of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

  • Takayuki Ashida
  • Eiji Okimasu


The stimulatory effect of fermented vegetable product (FVP) upon the phagocytic and superoxide generation of leukocytes was studied in the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The phagocytic activity of casein-induced, intraperitoneal leukocytes was investigated and quantified, that is the activity significantly increased (P<0.05 or <0.01) by the addition of FVP beyond 3 mg/kg body weight. Further analysis investigated the effect of FVP on superoxide generation in leukocytes. Established in vitro cytochrome c reduction assay was used to measure superoxide generation; reduced levels of FVP in assay samples had a profound effect on superoxide generation. FVP was also incorporated in commercial diets and fed to Japanese flounder for 4 weeks. The phagocytic activities and superoxide generation of peritoneal induced leukocytes were significantly higher (P<0.05, <0.01) in fish fed the FVP supplemented diet than fish fed the control diet. FVP feeding in fish had a significantly higher (P<0.05) activity of lysozyme than in the control fish.

Key Words

fermented vegetable product immunostimulation Japanese flounder nonspecific immunity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sakai M. Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquaculture 1999; 172: 63–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamamoto H, Kiyomatsu K, Hirose N, Sakai D, Katano M. Protective effect of Manda on NK cell activity in cancer patients. Biotherapy 1999; 13: 805–809.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hwang WI, Hwang YK, Lee JY, Lee JY, Okuda H. Antitumor and immunopotentiating effects of Manda enzyme. Nat. Prod. Sci. 1996; 2: 29–36.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ashida T, Okimasu E, Nishihara T, Kitanaka T, Nomura K, Amemura A. Oral administration of curdlan (β-1,3-glucan) potentates the non-specific immune system of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and its effect is influenced by the feeding period. Suisanzoshoku 1999; 47: 439–444.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takeda K, Ashida T, Nagara I, Okimasu E, Amemura A, Matsumoto M. Characteristics of superoxide production activity in fish and mammalian leukocyte and effect of quillaja saponin on it’s activity. Rep. Res. Inst. Mar. Biores. Fukuyama Univ. 1994; 5: 17–25.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ashida T, Okimasu E, Amemura A. Studies on protection against enterococcicosis of yellowtail and edwardsiellosis of Japanese flounder. Rep. Res. Inst. Mar. Biores. Fukuyama Univ. 1999; 10: 29–38.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kusuda R, Kawahara I, Hamaguchi M. Activities and characterization of lysozyme in skin mucus extract, serum and kidney extract of yellowtail. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 1987; 53: 211–214.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miyazaki Y, Tokunaga Y, Takagaki K, Tsusaki S, Tachibana H, Yamada K. Effect of dietary cabbage fermentation extract and young barley leaf powder on immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2001; 47: 253–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LeBlanc JG, Matar C, Valdez JC, LeBlanc J, Perdigon G. Immunomodulating effects of peptidic fractions issued from milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus. J. Dairy Sci. 2002; 85: 2733–2742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yoshida T, Sakai M, Kitao T, Khlil SM, Araki S, Saitoh R, Ineno T, Inglis V. Immunomodulatory effect of the fermented products of chicken egg, EF203, on rainbow trout, Oncorhychus mykiss. Aquaculture 1993; 109: 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawai M, Matuura S, Mori A. Free radical scavenging action of Manda. Clin. Rep. 1993; 28: 393–397.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamaguchi M, Muraoka A, Tanaka T, Kusuda R. A method for determination of intracellular bacterial killing by yellow-tail phagocytic cells against Pasteurella piscicida. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 1989; 55: 971–977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karczewski JM, Sharp GJE, Secombes CJ. Susceptibility of strains of Aeromonas salmonicida to killing by cell free generated superoxide anion. J. Fish Dis. 1991; 14: 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kokoshis PL, Williams DL, Cook JA, Di Luzio NR. Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Science 1978; 199: 1340–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jorgensen JB, Robertsen B. Yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) macrophages. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 1995; 19: 43–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Itami T, Asano M, Tokushige K, Kubono K, Nakagawa A, Takeno N, Nishimura H, Maeda M, Kondo M, Takahashi Y. Enhancement of disease resistance of kuruma shrimp, Penaeus japonicus, after oral administration of peptideglycan derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum. Aquaculture 1988; 164: 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takara M, Koshido A, Ogino H, Sekiya K, Katayama Y, Murakami K, Matsuura Y, Okuda H. Experimental and clinical studies of Manda-enzyme on general complaints of hemodialysed patients. Clin. Rep. 1989; 23: 3805–3816.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ashida T, Okimasu E, Amemura A. Effect of diet supplemented with a fermented vegetable product on lipid peroxidation in liver of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Suisanzoshoku 2002; 50: 121–122.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manda Fermentation Co. LtdInnoshima, HirosimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science and BiotechnologyFukuyama UniversityFukuyama, HiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations