Ecological Research

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 451–454 | Cite as

Social behaviors of all-male proboscis monkeys when joined by females

Note and Comment

In a riverine forest along the Menanggul River, which is a tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia, I observed an all-male group of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) consisting of 27–30 (mean: 28.8) individuals. This large size of the all-male group seems to be attributed to habitat fragmentation because of the expansion of oil palm plantations. A few females joined this all-male group. Sub-adult females copulated with subadult or large juvenile males. Since the mean male tenure period of this monkey was estimated to be longer than female maturity, and prematured females might leave their natal one-male groups to avoid inbreeding and temporarily participate in the all-male group where males were permissive to them. Even when females joined this group, no conflicts occurred among males.

Key words

all-male group copulation inbreeding avoidance male replacement Nasalis larvatus proboscis monkey 

References

  1. Bauchop T. (1978) Digestion of leaves in vertebrate arboreal folivores. In: The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores (ed. G. G. Montgomery), pp. 193–204. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D. C.Google Scholar
  2. Bauchop T. & Martucci R. W. (1968) Ruminant-like digestion of the langur monkey. Science 161: 698–700.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett E. L. & Sebastian T. (1988) Social organization and ecology of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in mixed coastal forest in Sarawak. International Journal of Primatology 9: 233–256.Google Scholar
  4. Boonratana R. (1993) The Ecology and Behavior of the Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis Larvatus) in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. PhD Thesis. Mahidol University, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  5. Boonratana R. (1999) Dispersal in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the Lower Kinabatangan, Northern Borneo. Tropical Biodiversity 6: 179–187.Google Scholar
  6. Boonratana R. (2002) Social organisation of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 56: 57–75.Google Scholar
  7. Galdikas B. M. F. (1985) Crocodile predation on a proboscis monkey in Borneo. Primates 26: 495–496.Google Scholar
  8. Hladik C. M. (1977) A comparative study of the feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkeys: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus. In: Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 323–353. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  9. Hrdy S. B. (1977) The Langurs of Abu: Female and Male Strategies of Reproduction. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Mohnot S. M. (1984) Some observations on all-male bands of hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). In: Current Primate Researches (eds M. L. Roonwal, S. M. Mohnot & N. S. Rathore), pp. 343–356. University of Jodhpur, India.Google Scholar
  11. Newton P. N. (1992) Feeding and ranging patterns of forest hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). International Journal of Primatology 13: 245–285.Google Scholar
  12. Newton P. N. (1994) Social stability and change among forest hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 35: 489–498.Google Scholar
  13. Newton P. N. & Dunbar R. I. M. (1994) Colobine monkey society. In: Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution (eds A. G. Davies & J. F. Oates), pp. 311–346. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Oates J. F. & Davies A. G. (1994) What are the colobines?. In: Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution (eds A. G. Davies & J. F. Oates), pp. 1–9. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Oates J. F., Davies A. G., Delson E. (1994) The diversity of living colobines. In: Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution (eds A. G. Davies & J. F. Oates), pp. 45–74. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  16. Pusey A. E. & Packer C. (1987) Dispersal and philopatry. In: Primate Societies (eds B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 250–266. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  17. Rudran R. (1973) Adult male replacement in one-male troops of purple-faced langurs (Presbytis senex senex) and its effect on population structure. Folia Primatologica 19: 166–192.Google Scholar
  18. Sommer V. (1988) Male competition and coalitions in langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Human Evolution 3: 261–278.Google Scholar
  19. Sterck E. H. M. (1997) Determinants of female dispersal in Thomas langurs. American Journal of Primatology 42: 179–198.Google Scholar
  20. Waterman P. G. (1984) Food acquisition and processing as a function of plant chemistry. In: Food Acquisition and Processing by Primates (eds D. J. Chivers, B. A. Wood & A. Bilsborough), pp. 177–211. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Yeager C. P. (1990) Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: group structure. American Journal of Primatology 20: 95–106.Google Scholar
  22. Yeager C. P. (1991a) Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: intergroup patterns of association. American Journal of Primatology 23: 73–86.Google Scholar
  23. Yeager C. P. (1991b) Possible antipredator behavior associated with river crossings by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus). American Journal of Primatology 24: 61–66.Google Scholar
  24. Yeager C. P. & Kool K. (2000) The behavioral ecology of Asian colobines. In: Old World Monkeys (eds P. F. Whitehead & C. J. Jolly), pp. 496–514. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental Earth ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations