Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp 364–369

PTSD and depression among displaced Chinese workers after the world trade center attack: A follow-up study

  • Heike Thiel de Bocanegra
  • Sophia Moskalenko
  • Priscilla Chan

DOI: 10.1093/jurban/jti074

Cite this article as:
Thiel de Bocanegra, H., Moskalenko, S. & Chan, P. J Urban Health (2005) 82: 364. doi:10.1093/jurban/jti074


We conducted a follow-up assessment to assess the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression among Chinese immigrants after the World Trade Center attack. Sixty-five Chinese displaced workers who were originally interviewed in May 2002 were re-interviewed in March 2003. Whereas depression scores decreased over time, avergae PTSD scores remained unchanged. The trajectory of posttraumatic stress symptoms was more complex, with an increasing number of individuals who show no or little emotional health problems and another increasing group of individuals with exacerbated posttraumatic stress symptoms. Although the mean values of the re-experiencing and hypervigilance cluster did not change over time, the mean value of the avoidance/numbing cluster increased significantly from time 1 (M=4.60, SD=4.98) to time 2 (M=6.34, SD=4.24), (F1.61=5.69, P=.02). A higher proportion of subjects met diagnostic criteria of PTSD at time 2 (27%) than at time 1 (21%). The study highlights the importance of ongoing mental health surveillance of diverse cultural and linguistic groups after a major traumatic event.


Chinese-American Depression New York PTSD Terrorism WTC attacks 

Copyright information

© Oxford University Press on behalf of the New York Academy of Medicine 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heike Thiel de Bocanegra
    • 1
  • Sophia Moskalenko
    • 2
  • Priscilla Chan
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Reproductive Health Research & PolicyUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia
  3. 3.Chinese-American Planning Council, Community ServicesNew York
  4. 4.Family PACT—Office of Family PlanningCalifornia Department of Health ServicesSacramento

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