Updating the infection risk reduction hierarchy: Preventing transition into injection
- 107 Downloads
Current approaches to prevention of blood-borne infections in injection drug users include referral to drug abuse treatment, access to sterile syringes, bleach disinfection of injection equipment, and education about not sharing equipment. However, rates of some blood-borne infections (e.g., hepatitis C virus) remain elevated among injection drug users, especially early after initiation into injection drug use. With lower infection rates in noninjectors and transition into injection drug use occurring most commonly among these noninjectors, prevention of transition into injection drug use as an additional step to reduce risk for acquisition and transmission of blood-borne infections merits closer attention.
KeywordsHepatitis C virus Hierarchy Human immunodeficiency virus Infection Injection drug use Prevention
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.US Public Health Service. HIV prevention bulletin: medical advice to persons who inject illicit drugs. May 9, 1997. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/idu/pubs/hiv_prev.htm. Accessed October 5, 2003.Google Scholar
- 27.Neaigus A, Atillasoy A, Friedman SR, et al. Trends in the non-injected use of heroin and factors associated with the transition to injecting. In: Inciardi J, Harrison LD, eds. Heroin in the Age of Crack Cocaine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1998:131–159.Google Scholar
- 30.Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration. 2002 National Survey on Drug Use & Health Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo. Accessed October 5, 2003.Google Scholar
- 34.Freudenberg N, Silver D, Carmona JM, Kass D, Lancaster B, Speers M. Health promotion in the city: a structured review of the literature on interventions to prevent heart disease, substance abuse, violence and HIV infection in US metropolitan areas, 1980–1995. J Urban Health. 2000;77:443–457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar