Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 80, Issue 4, pp 536–555 | Cite as

The built environment and mental health

Abstract

The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. Highrise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult, to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer’s patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding, (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms.

Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental, conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple environmental risk exposure.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    National Research Council. Indoor Air Pollutants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lawrence RJ. Healthy residential environments. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002;394–412.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matte TD. Housing and, health: current issues and implications for research and programs. J Urban Health. 2000;77:7–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans GW, Wells NM, Moch A. Housing and mental health: a review of the evidence and a methodological and conceptual critique. J Soc Issues. 2003;59:475–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freeman HL. Housing. In: Freeman HL ed. Mental Health and the Environment. London, England: Churchill Livingstone; 1984:197–225.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gifford R. Satisfaction, health, security, and social relationships in high-rise buildings. In: Seidel A, Heath T, eds. Social Effects of the Built Environment. London, England: E & FN Spon. In press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fanning, DM. Families in flats. BMJ. 1967;4:382–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCarthy D, Saegert S. Residential density, social overload, and social withdrawal. In: Aiello J, Baum A, eds. Residential Crowding and Design. New York, NY, Plenum; 1979:55–76.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saegert S. Environments and children’s mental health: residential density and low income children. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Handbook of Psychology and Health, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1982:242–271.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartlett S. Does inadequate housing perpetuate children’s poverty Childhood. 1998; 5:403–420.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stewart W. Children in Flats: A Family Study. London, England: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; 1970.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Halpern D. Mental Health and the Built Environment. London, England: Taylor and Francis; 1995.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carp FM. Impact of improved housing on morale and life satisfaction. Gerontologist. 1975;15:511–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elton PJ, Packer J. A prospective, randomized trial of the value of rehousing on the grounds of mental health. J Chronic Dis. 1986;39:221–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Evans GW, Wells NM, Chan E, Saltzman H. Housing and mental health. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:526–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Christensen D, Carp FM, Crams G, Wiley J. Objective housing indicators as predictors of the subjective evaluation of elderly residents. J Environ Psychol. 1992;12:225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adam EK, Chase-Lansdale PL. Home sweet home(s): parental separations, residential moves, and adjustment problems in low-income girls. Dev Psychol. 2002;38:792–805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Humke C, Schaefer C. Relocation: a review of the effects of residential mobility on children and adolescents. Psychol J Hum Behav. 1995;32:16–24.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lawton MP. Environment and Aging. Monterey, Calif: Brooks-Cole; 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fried M. Grieving for a lost home. In: Duhl L, ed. The Urban Condition. New York, NY: Basic;1963:229–248.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kearns A, Hiscock R, Ellaway A, Macintrye S. Beyond four walls. The psychosocial benefits of home: evidence from West Central Scotland. Housing Stud. 2000;15:387–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gielen AC, Wilson M, Faden R, Wissow L, Harvilchuck J In-home injury prevention practices for infants and toddlers: the role of parental beliefs, barriers, and housing quality. Health Educ Q. 1995;22:85–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Macpherson A, Roberts I, Pless IB. Children’s exposure to traffic and pedestrian injuries. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1840–1845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mueller BA, Rivara FP, Lii SM, Weiss NS. Environmental factors and the risk for childhood pedestrian-motor vehicle collision occurrence. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132: 550–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Campo P, Rao RP, Gielen AC, Royalty W, Wilson M. Injury-producing events among children in low-income communities: the role of community characteristics. J Urban Health. 2000;77:34–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johnson MP, Ladd HF, Ludwig J. The benefits and costs of residential mobility programs for the poor. Housing Stud. 2002;17:125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dalgard OS, Tambs K. Urban environment and mental health a longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;171:530–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Evans GW, Kantrowitz E. Socioeconomic status and health: the potential role of environmental risk exposure. Annu Rev Public Health. 2002;23:303–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wandersman A, Nation M. Urban neighborhoods and mental health. Am Psychol. 1998;53:647–656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leventhal T, Brooks-Gunn J. Neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychol Bull. 2000;126:309–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weich S, Blanchard M, Prince M, Burton E, Erens B, Sproston K. Mental health and the built environment: cross sectional survey of individual and contextual risk factors for depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;176:428–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Holahan CJ. Seating patterns and patient behaviours in an experimental dayroom. J Abnorm Psychol. 1972;80:115–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holahan CJ, Saegert S. Behavioral and attitudinal effects of large scale variation in the physical environment of psychiatric wards. J Abnorm Psychol. 1972;82:454–462.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Osmond H. Function as the basis of psychiatric ward design. Ment Hospitals. 1957;8: 23–30.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sommer R. Personal Space. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall; 1969.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Timko C. Physical characteristics of residential psychiatric and substance abuse programs: organizational determinats and patient outcomes. Am J Community Psychol. 1996;24:173–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zimring C, Weitzer W, Knight RC. Opportunity for control and the designed environment. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Advances in Environmental Psychology. Vol. 4. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum; 1982:171–210.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ittelson WH, Proshansky HM, Rivlin LG. The environmental psychology of the psychiatric ward. In: Proshansky HM, Ittelson WH, Rivlin LG, eds. Environmental Psychology. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 1970:419–438.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Day K, Calkins MP. Design and dementia. In:Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY, Wiley; 2002:374–393.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kuller R. Familiar design helps dementia patients cope. In: Preiser WFE, Vischer JC, White ET, eds. Design Intervention. New York, NY: Van Nostrand; 1991:255–268.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baum A, Paulus PB. Crowding. In: Stokols D, Altman I, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley; 1987:533–570.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Evans GW. Environmental stress and health In: Baum A, Revenson T, Singer JE, eds. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2001:571–610.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Paulus PB. Prison Crowding: A Psychological Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 1988.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wener RE, Keys C. The effects of changes in jail population densities on crowding: sick call, and social behavior. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1988;18:852–866.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Allen KM. Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:204–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Evans GW, Lercher P, Meis M, Ising, H, Kofler W. Community noise exposure and stress in children. J Acoustical Soc Am. 2001;109:1023–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gove WR, Hughes M. Overcrowding in the Household. New York, NY: Academic; 1983.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lepore SJ, Evans GW, Schneider M. The dynamic role of social support in the link between chronic stress and psychological distress. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;61:899–909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stansfeld SA. Noise, noise sensitivity, and psychiatric disorder: epidemiological and psychophysiological studies. Psychol Med, Monogr Suppl. 1993;22:1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lercher P, Evans GW, Meis M, Kofler W. Ambient neighborhood noise and children’s mental health. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:380–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bullinger M, Hygge S, Evans GW, Meis M, van Mackensen, S. The psychological cost of aircraft noise for children. Zentralblatt Hygiene Umveltmedizin. 1999;202:127–138.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grandjean E, Graf P, Lauber A, Meier H, Muller R. Survey on the effects of noise around three civil airports in Switzerland. In: Kerlin R, ed. Internoise ’76, Washington, DC: Institute of Noise Control Engineers; 1976:85–90.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Knipschild P, Oudshoorn N, VII. Medical effects of aircraft noise: drug survey. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1977;40:197–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Brenthall S, et al. The West London schools study: the effects of chronic noise exposure on child health. Psychol Med. 2001;31:1385–1396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Job RFS, Berglund B, Head J. A follow-up study of effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on child stress responses and cognition. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:839–845.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Job RFS, Berglund B, Head J. Chronic aircraft noise exposure, stress responses, mental health and cognitive performance in school children. Psychol Med. 2001;31:265–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Evans GW. The psychological costs of chronic exposure to ambient air pollution. In: Isaacson RL, Jensen KF, eds. The Vulnerable Brain and Environmental Risks. New York, NY: Plenum; 1994:167–182.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rotton J, Cohn EG. Climate, weather, and crime. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:481–498.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rotton J. Affective and cognitive consequences of malodorous pollution. Basic Appl Soc Psychol. 1983;4:171–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cavalini P, Koeter-Kemmerling L, Pulles TM. Coping with odor annoyance and odor concentrations. J Environ Psychol. 1991;11:123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Araki S Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1994.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton, A, et al. Deficits in psychological and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N Engl J Med. 1979;300: 689–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Needleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred E. The long term effects of low doses of lead in childhood: an 11 year follow up report. N Engl J Med. 1989;322: 83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sciarillo WG, Alexander G, Farrell KP. Lead exposure and child behavior. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:1356–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schottenfeld RS. Psychological, sequelae of hazardous materials exposure. In: Sullivan JB, Krieger GR, eds. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001:404–412.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Masters RD, Hone B, Doshi A. Environmental pollution, neurotoxicity, and criminal violence. In: Rose J, ed. Environmental Toxicology. New York, NY: Gordon and Breach; 1998:13–48.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Laughlin NK. Animal models of behavioral effects of early lead exposure. In: Riley EP, Vorhess CV, eds. Handbook of Behavioral Teratology. New York, NY: Plenum; 1986; 291–320.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Edelstein MR. Contaminated Communities. Boulder, Colo: Westview; 1988.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Edelstein MR. Contamination: the invisible built environment. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. The Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:559–588.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC, et al. Seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;4172–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Beauchemin KM, Hays P. Sunny hospital rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions. J Affective Disord. 1996;40:49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McColl SL, Veitch JA. Full spectrum fluorescent lighting: a review of its effects on physiology and health. Psychol Med. 2001;31:949–964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kuller R, Lindsten C. Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows. J Environ Psychol. 1992;12:305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bandura A. Self Efficacy. San Francisco, Calif: W.H. Freeman; 1987.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shapiro DH, Astin J. Control, Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley; 1998.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Taylor SE, Brown JD. Illusions and well being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol Bull. 1988;103:193–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Glass DC, Singer JL. Urban Stress. New York, NY: Academic; 1972.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hiroto D. Locus of control and learned helplessness. J. Exp Psychol. 1974;102:187–193.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Krantz DS, Glass DC, Snyder M Helplessness, stress level, and coronary prone behavior pattern. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1974;10:284–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Evans GW. Behavioral and physiological consequences of crowding in humans. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1979;9:27–46.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nicosia G, Hyman D, Karlin R, Epstein Y, Aiello J. Effects of bodily contact on reactions to crowding. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1979;9:508–523.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sherrod D, Crowding, perceived control, and behavioral aftereffects. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1974;4:171–186.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cohen S, Evans GW, Stokols D, Krantz DS. Behavior, Health, and Environmental Stress. New York, NY: Plenum; 1986.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Evans GW, Hygge S, Bullinger M. Chronic noise and psychological stress. Psychol Sci. 1995;6:333–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moch A. Study of the effects of noise on the personality and certain intellectual and psychomotor aspects of children. Travail Human. 1981;44:170–178.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Maxwell LE, Evans GW. The effects of noise on preschool children’s prereading skills. J Environ Psychol. 2000;20:91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fleming I, Baum A, Weiss L. Social density and perceived control as mediators of crowding stress in high density neighborhoods. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1987;52:899–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Sejwal B, Palsane MN. Chronic residential crowding and children’s well being: an ecological perspective. Child Dev. 1998;69:1514–1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rodin J. Density, perceived choice, and response to controllable and uncontrollable outcomes. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1976;12:564–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baum A, Valins S. Architecture and Social Behavior, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1977.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baum A, Valins S. Architectural mediation of residential density and control: crowding and the regulation of social contact. In: Berkowitz L, ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York, NY: Academic; 1979.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Baum A, Gatchel R, Aiello J, Thompson D. Cognitive mediation of environmental stress. In: Harvey J, ed. Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1981:513–533.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Churchman A, Ginsberg Y. The image and experience of high rise housing in Israel. J Environ Psychol. 1984;4:27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Evans GW, Saltzman H, Cooperman J. Housing quality and children’s socioemotional health. Env Behav. 2001;33:389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Alexander C. The city as a mechanism for sustaining human contact. In: Gutman R, ed. People and Buildings. New York, NY: Basic; 1972:406–434.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zimring C. The built environment as a source of psychological stress: impacts of buildings and cities on satisfaction and behavior. In: Evans GW, ed. Environmental Stress. New York, NY: Cambridge; 1982:151–198.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Schroeder A. The role of architecture in human responses to crowding. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996;70:41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Peponis J, Wineman J. Spatial structure of environment and behavior. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:271–291.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nasar JL, Fisher B. Hot spots of fear and crime: a multi-method investigation. J Environ Psychol. 1993;13:187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Newman O. Defensible Space. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1972.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Taylor RB. Human Territorial Functioning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Taylor RB. Crime prevention through environmental design. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:413–426.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997;277:918–924.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rosenbaum JE, Reynolds L, Deluca S. How do places matter? The geography of opportunity, self-efficacy, and a look inside the black box of residential mobility. Housing Stud. 2002;17:71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cohen S, Gottlieb BH, Underwood LG. Social relationships and health. In: Cohen S, Underwood LG, Gottlieb BH, eds. Social Support Measurement and Intervention. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000:3–28.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cohen S, Syme SL, eds. Social Support and Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1985.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kawachi I, Bergman LF. Social ties and mental health. J Urban Health. 2001;78:458–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vaux A. Social Support: Theory, Research, and Intervention. New York, NY: Praeger; 1988.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fleming R, Baum A, Singer JE. Social support and the physical environment. In: Cohen S, Syme L, eds. Social Support and Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1985: 327–346.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moos RH. The Human Context. New York, NY: Wiley; 1976.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Becker FD. Workplace by Design. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 1995.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    McCoy JM. Work environments. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:443–460.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sundstrom E. Workplaces. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1986.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bechtel RB. Enclosing Behavior. Stroudsburg, Pa: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross; 1976.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Carr S, Francis M, Rivlin LG, Stone A. Public Space. New York, NY: Cambridge; 1992.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Whyte WH. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, DC: Conservation Foundation; 1980.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Evans GW, Lepore SJ. Household crowding and social support: a quasi-experimental analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;65:308–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Holahan CJ. Environment and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum; 1978.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wilcox BL, Holahan CJ. Social ecology of the megadorm in university student housing. J Educ Psychol. 1976;68:453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Appleyard D, Lintell M. The environmental quality of city streets. J Am Inst Planners. 1972;38:84–101.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Berglund B, Lindvall T, Schewela D. Guidelines for Community Noise. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kryter K. The Handbook of Hearing and the Effects of Noise. New York, NY: Academic; 1994.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Medical Research Council. The Nonauditory Effects of Noise. Report R10, Institute for Environment and Health. Leicester, England: University of Leicester; 1997.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Cohen S, Spacapan S. The social psychology of noise. In: Jones DM, Chapman AJ, eds. Noise and Society. Chichester, England: Wiley; 1984:221–245.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaplan R, Kaplan S. The Experience of Nature. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kaplan R, Kaplan S, Ryan RL. With People in Mind. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kuo FE. Coping with poverty. Env Behav. 2001;33:5–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Parsons R, Hartig T. Environmental psychophysiology. In: Cacioppo JT, Tassinary LG, Berntson GG, eds. Handbook of Psychophysiology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2000:815–846.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ulrich RS. Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes. In: Kellert SR, Wilson EO, eds. The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1993:73–137.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Larsen L, Adams J, Deal B, Kweon BS, Tyler E: Plants in the workplace. Env Behav. 1998;30:261–281.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ulrich RS. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science. 1984;224:420–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    McCarney SB. The Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES): Home Version Technical Manual. 2nd ed. Columbia, Mo: Hawthorne Educational Services; 1995.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wells NM. At home with nature: effects of “greenness” on children’s cognitive functioning. Env Behav. 2000;32:775–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kuo FE. Bridging the gap: how scientists can make a difference. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kuo FE, Sullivan WC, Coley R, Brunson L. Fertile ground for community: inner-city neighborhood common spaces. Am J Community Psychol. 1998;26:823–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Frumkin H. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:234–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ulrich RS. Effects of interior design on wellness: theory and recent scientific research. J Health Care Interior Design. 1991;3:97–109.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wachs TD, Gruen G. Early Experience and Human Development. New York, NY: Plenum; 1982.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986;51:1173–1182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Evans GW, Lepore SJ. Moderating and mediating processes in environment behavior research. In: Moore GT, Marans RW, eds. Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design. Vol. 4. New York, NY: Plenum; 1997.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Earls M, Nelson G. The relationship between long term psychiatric clients’ psychological well being and their perceptions of housing and social support. Am J Community Psychol. 1988;16:279–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Evans GW, Saegert S. Residential crowding in the context of inner city poverty. In: Wapner S, Demick J, Minami H, Yamamoto T, eds. Theoretical Perspectives in Environment-Behavior Research. New York, NY: Plenum; 2000:247–268.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lepore SJ, Evans GW, Palsane MN. Social hassles and chronic strains: a hierarchy of stressors? J Health Soc Behav. 1991;32:357–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Evans GW, Allen K, Tafalla R, O’Meara T. Multiple stressors: performance, psychophysiologic, and affective responses. J Environ Psychol. 1996;16:65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Evans GW, Jacobs SV, Dooley C, Catalano R. The interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health. Am J Community Psychol. 1987;15: 23–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kasl SW, Will J, White M, Marcuse P. Quality of the residential environment and mental health. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Advances in Environmental Psychology. Vol. 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1982:1–30.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    McCarthy P, Byrne D, Harrison S, Keithley J. Housing type, housing location, and mental health. Soc Psychiatry. 1985;2:125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Evans GW, Lercher P, Kofler W. Crowding and children’s mental health: the role of house type. J Environ Psychol. 2002;22:221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hassan R. Social and psychological implications of high population density. Civilization. 1976;26:9–28.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mitchell RE. Some social implications of high density housing. Am Sociol Rev. 1971; 36:18–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ruback RB, Pandey J. Very hot and really crowded. Env Behav. 1992;24:527–554.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Maxwell LE. Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Env Behav. 1996;28:494–511.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gomez-Jacinto L, Hombrados-Mendieta I. Multiple effects of community and house-hold crowding. J Environ Psychol. 2002;22:223–246.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Frumkin H, Walker D. Minority workers and communities. In: Wallace R, ed. Maxcy Rosenau Last Public Health and Preventative Medicine. 14th ed. Stamford, Conn: Appleton and Lange; 1998:682–688.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE. Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol Bull. 2002;128:330–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Taylor SE, Repetti RL, Seeman TE. Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annu Rev Psychol. 1997;48:411–447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Evans GW, English K. The environment of poverty: multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional health. Child Dev. 2002;73:1238–1248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Design and Environmental Analysis and Department of Human DevelopmentCornell UniversityIthaca

Personalised recommendations