Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 79, Issue 4, pp 525–535

HIV risk profile and prostitution among female street youths

  • Amy E. Weber
  • Jean-François Boivin
  • Lucie Blais
  • Nancy Haley
  • Élise Roy
Various Topics

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in prostitution and those never involved were carried out using parametric and nonparametric methods. Of the girls, 88 (27%) reported involvement in prostitution, and 177 girls reported no history of prostitution at the baseline interview. Girls involved in prostitution were two times and five times more likely to have reported bingeing on alcohol and on drugs, respectively. A history of injection drug use was four times more likely to have been reported by girls involved in prostitution. Further, these girls were 2.5 times more likely to have reported injected cocaine as their drug of choice. Girls involved in prostitution were younger the first time they had consensual sex and were twice as likely to have reported anal sex. Consistent condom use for anal, vaginal, and oral sex was low for all girls. Girls involved in prostitution reported more risky sexual partners. In conclusion, girls involved in prostitution may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to their injection drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Unique intervention strategies are necessary for reducing HIV infection among female street youths involved in prostitution.

Keywords

Canada HIV/AIDS Prostitution Street youth Women 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Yates GL, MacKenzie R, Pennbridge J, Cohen E. A risk profile comparison of runaway and non-runaway youth. Am J Public Health. 1988;81:208–210.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Council on Scientific Affairs. Health status of detained and incarcerated youth. JAMA. 1990;263:987–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Podschun GD. Teen peer outreach-street work project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth. Public Health Rep. 1993;108:150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ringwalt CL, Greene JM, Robertson M, McPheeters M. The prevalence of homelessness among a dolescents in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1325–1329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kipke MD, O'Connor S, Palmer R, MacKenzie RG. Street youth in Los Angeles: profile of a group at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. 1995;149:513–519.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kral AH, Molnar BE, Booth RE, Watters JK. Prevalence of sexual risk behaviour and substance use among runaway and homeless adolescents in San Francisco, Denver and New York City. Int J STD AIDS. 1997;8:109–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson JE, Freese TE, Pennbridge JN. Sexual risk behavior and condom use among street youth in Hollywood. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994;26(6):22–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenblatt M, Robertson MJ. Life-styles, adaptive strategies, and sexual behaviors of homeless adolescents. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1993;44:1177–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pfeifer RW, Oliver J. A study of HIV seroprevalence in a group of homeless youth in Hollywood, California. J Adolesc Health. 1997;20:339–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sullivan T. Juvenile prostitution: a critical perspective. Marriage Fam Rev. 1988;12:113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clements K, Gleghorn A, Garcia D, Katz M, Marx R. A risk profile of street youth in northern California: implications for gender-specific human immunodeficiency virus prevention. J Adolesc Health. 1997;20:343–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Forst ML, Harry J, Goddard PA. A health-profile comparison of delinquent and homeless youths. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1993;4:386–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson TP, Aschkenasy JR, Herbers MR, Gillenwater SA. Self-reported risk factors for AIDS among homeless youth. AIDS Educ Prev. 1996;8:308–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rotheram-Borus MJ, Mahler KA, Koopman C, Langabeer K. Sexual abuse history and associated multiple risk behavior in adolescent runaways. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1996; 66:390–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simons RL, Witbeck LB. Sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women. J Family Issues. 1991;12:361–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    deMatteo D, Major C, Block B, et al. Toronto street youth and HIV/AIDS: prevalence, demographics and risks. J Adolesc Health. 1999;25:358–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roy É, Haley N, Leclerc P, et al. Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviours among Montreal street youth. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:241–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rotheram-Borus M, Koopman C, Ehrhardt A. Homeless youth and HIV infection in the United States. Am Psychol. 1991;46:1188–1197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    deMatteo D, Read S, Bock B, et al. HIV seroprevalence in Toronto street youth. Int Conf AIDS 1992;C297.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roy É, Haley N, Boivin J-F, Frappier J-Y, Claessens C. HIV Infection Among Montreal Street Youth. Montreal, Canada: Unité de santé publique—Division des maladies infectieuses; July 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stricof RL, Kennedy JT, Nattell TC, Weisfuse IB, Novick LF. HIV seroprevalence in a facility for runaway and homeless adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:S50-S53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kipke MD, Montgomery SB, Simon TR, Iverson EF. “Substance abuse” disorders among runaway and homeless youth. Substance Use Misuse. 1997;32:969–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Markos AR, Wade AAH, Walzman M. The adolescent female prostitute and sexually transmitted diseases. Int J STD AIDS. 1992;3:92–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bailey SL, Camlin CS, Ennett ST. Substance use and risky sexual behavior among homeless and runaway youth. J Adolesc Health. 1998;23:378–388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baseman J, Ross M, Williams M. Sale of sex for drugs and drugs for sex: an economic context of sexual risk behavior for STDs. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26:444–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clatts MC, Davis WR. A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention. Med Anthropol Q. 1999; 13:365–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Doherty MC, Garfein RS, Monterroso E, Brown D, Vlahov D. Correlates of HIV infection among young adult short-term injection drug users. AIDS. 2000;14:717–726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Booth RE, Watters JK. HIV seroprevalence among street-recruited injection drug and crack cocaine users in 16 US municipalities. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:108–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    DeHovitz JA, Kelly P, Feldman J, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases, sexual behavior, and cocaine use in inner-city women. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140:1125–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edlin BR, Irwin KL, Faruque S, et al. Intersecting epidemics—crack cocaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1422–1427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marx R, Aral SO, Rolfs RT, Sterk CE, Kahn JG, Crack, sex and STD. Sex Transm Dis. 1991;18:92–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Friedman SR, Rosenblum A, Goldsmith D, Des Jarlais DC, Sufian M. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection among street-recruited intravenous drug users in New York City. Int Conf AIDS. 1989:56.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilson TE, Minkoff H, DeHovitz J, Feldman J, Landesman S. The relationship of cocaine use and human immunodeficiency virus serostatus to incident sexually transmitted diseases among women. Sex Transm Dis. 1998;25(2):70–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guadagnino V, Zimatore G, Izzi A, et al. Relevance of intravenous cocaine use in relation to prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus markers among intravenous drug abusers in southern Italy. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1995;47:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Magura S, Kang SY, Nwakeze PC, Demsky S. Temporal patterns of heroin and cocaine use among methadone patients. Substance Use Misuse. 1998;33:2441–2467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chaisson RE, Bacchetti P, Osmond D, Brodie B, Sande MA, Moss AR. Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco. JAMA. 1989;261:561–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Spatz Widom C, Kuhns JB. Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: a prospective study. Am J Public Health. 1996; 86:1607–1612.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zierler S, Feingold L, Laufer D, Velentgas P, Kantrowitz-Gordon I, Mayer K. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:572–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sheldrick C. Adult sequelae of child sexual abuse. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;158 (suppl 10): 55–62.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Farley M, Barkan H. Prostitution, violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women Health. 1998;27(3):37–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    El-Bassel N, Schilling RF, Irwin KL, et al. Sex trading and psychological distress among women recruited from the street of Harlem. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Teets JM. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1997;29:331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greenberg J, Magder L, Aral S. Age at first coitus: a marker for risky sexual behavior in women. Sex Transm Dis. 1992;19:331–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples BMJ. 1992;304: 809–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Darrow WW, Echenberg DF, Jaffe HW, et al. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in homosexual men. Am J Public Health. 1987;77:479–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moss AR, Osmond DH, Cherman JC, Barre-Sinoussi F, Carlson J. Risk factors for AIDS and HIV seropositivity in homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125:1035–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    van Griensven GJP, Tielman RAP, Goudsmit J, van der Noorda J, de Wolf F, Coutinho RA. Risk factors and prevalence of HIV antibodies among homosexual men in the Netherlands. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125:1048–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Abdool Karim SS, Ramjee G. Anal sex and HIV transmission in women. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1265–1266.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Saracco A, Musicco M, Nicolosi A, et al. Man-to-woman sexual transmission of HIV: longitudinal study of 343 steady partners of infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6:498–502.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Council on Scientific Affairs. Health care needs of homeless and runaway youths. JAMA. 1989;262:1358–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fournier L, Chevalier S, Ostoj M, Caulet M, Courtemanche R, Plante N. Dénombrement de la clientèle itinérante dans les centres d'hébergement, les soupes populaires et les centres de jour des villes de Montréal et de Québec 1996–97. Montreal, Canada: Santé Québec; November 20, 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy E. Weber
    • 1
  • Jean-François Boivin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lucie Blais
    • 3
  • Nancy Haley
    • 2
  • Élise Roy
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Joint Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational HealthMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Maladies InfectieusesDirection de la Santé Publique de Montréal-CentreMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Faculté de pharmacieUniversité de MontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations