Advertisement

Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 34–51 | Cite as

Treatment of Complex Trauma in Young Children: Developmental and Cultural Considerations in Application of the ARC Intervention Model

  • Joshua Arvidson
  • Kristine Kinniburgh
  • Kristin Howard
  • Joseph Spinazzola
  • Helen Strothers
  • Mary Evans
  • Barry Andres
  • Chantal Cohen
  • Margaret E. Blaustein
Interpersonal Traumatic Events

Abstract

The Attachment, Self Regulation, and Competency (ARC) Framework is a theoretically grounded, evidence-informed, promising practice used to treat complex trauma in children and adolescents. This article introduces the ARC model and describes its application with young children of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds involved in the child protection system due to maltreatment. Examination of the clinical application of the ARC model with this population underscores the importance of grounding child complex trauma treatment in the caregiving system. Strategies for successful clinical intervention are identified, with attention devoted to cultural and systemic resources to advance the treatment process. This article presents preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the ARC model derived from program evaluation conducted at a community-based clinic.

Keywords

complex trauma attachment regulation trauma ARC 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aboud, F. E., & Doyle, A. (1993). The early development of ethnic identity and attitudes. In M. Bernal & G. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 47–60). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. (2001). Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6–18. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  4. Alink, L., Cicchetti, D., Kim, J., & Rogosch, F. (2009). Mediating and moderating processes in the relation between maltreatment and psychopathology: Mother-child relationship quality and emotion regulation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 831–843.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J., & Lamar, R., (2009). Alaska Child Trauma Center Summary Report. University of Alaska Anchorage, AK: Center for Human Development.Google Scholar
  6. Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1994). Child maltreatment, attachment, and the self system: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in toddlers at high social risk. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaustein, M., & Kinniburgh, K. (2007). Intervening beyond the child: The intertwining nature of attachment and trauma. British Psychological Society Briefing Paper, 26, 48–53.Google Scholar
  8. Blaustein, M., & Kinniburgh, K. (2010). Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescents: How to foster resilience through attachment, self-regulation, and competence. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Blaustein, M., Kinniburgh, K., Carew, N., Peterson, M., Abbott, D., & Spinazzola, J. (2010). Pilot evaluation of ARC treatment framework. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. Briere, J. (1996). Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children- Alternate Version. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F., & Toth, S. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 623–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., et al. (2005). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 390–398.Google Scholar
  14. Goodvin, R., Meyer, S., Thompson, R., & Hayes, R. (2008). Self-understanding in early childhood: Associations with child attachment security and maternal negative affect. Attachment and Human Development, 10, 433–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2006). Frightened, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in lowrisk samples: Description, discussion, and interpretations. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 309–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kinniburgh, K., & Blaustein, M. (2005). Attachment, self-regulation, and competency: A comprehensive framework for intervention with complexly traumatized youth. A treatment manual. Boston, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Kinniburgh, K., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2005). Attachment, self-regulation & competency: A comprehensive intervention framework for children with complex trauma. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 424–430.Google Scholar
  18. Kinniburgh, K., Spinazzola, J., Gabowitz, D., & Blaustein, M. (2010). Developing and implementing trauma-informed programming in two residential settings using the ARC framework. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  19. Kopp, C. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Larrieu, J. A., & Bellow, S. M. (2004). Relationship assessment for young traumatized children. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Young children and trauma: Intervention and treatment (pp. 155–172). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lieberman, A., & van Horn, P. (2008). Psychotherapy with infants and young children: Repairing the effects of stress and trauma on early attachment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McCarthy, G. (1998). Attachment representations and representations of the self in relation to others: A study of preschool children in inner-city London. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71(1), 57–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Russel, J., & Clark-Carter, D. (1998). Security of attachment as a predictor of symbolic and mentalising abilities: A longitudinal study. Social Development, 7(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Osofsky, J. (Ed.). (2004). Young children and trauma: Intervention and treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Perry, B., Hogan, L., & Marlin, S. (2000). Curiosity, pleasure, and play: A neurodevelopmental perspective. Retrieved from http://www.thegotomom.com/tips/curiosity.htm Google Scholar
  27. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pynoos, R., Rodriguez, N., Steinberg, A., Stuber, M., & Frederick, C. (1998). UCLA PTSD Index for DSM IV. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Trauma Psychiatry Service.Google Scholar
  29. Sadeh, A. (1996). Stress, trauma, and sleep in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5, 685–700.Google Scholar
  30. Scheeringa, M. S., & Zeanah, C. H. (2001). A relational perspective on PTSD in early childhood. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 799–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schneider, B., Atkinson, L., & Tardif, C. (2001). Child-parent attachment and children’s peer relations: A quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 37, 86–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schore, A. (2001a). Effects of a secure attachment on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 7–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schore, A. (2001b). The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 201–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schuder, M., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004). “Hidden trauma” in infancy: Attachment, fearful arousal, and early dysfunction of the stress response system. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Young children and trauma (pp. 69–104). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Shonk, S. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Maltreatment, competency deficits, and risk for academic and behavioral maladjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37, 3–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Zucker, M., van der Kolk, B., Silva, S., Smith, S., et al. (2005). National survey of complex trauma exposure, outcome and intervention for children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 433–439.Google Scholar
  37. Toth, S., & Cicchetti, D. (1996). Patterns of relatedness, depressive symptomatology, and perceived competence in maltreated children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(1), 32–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Alaska Child and Family Services Review. Retrieved from http://hss.state.ak.us/ocs/Publications/CFSRreport2009.pdf Google Scholar
  39. Vondra, J., Barnett, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Self-concept, motivation, and competence among preschoolers from maltreating and comparison families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 525–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua Arvidson
    • 1
  • Kristine Kinniburgh
    • 2
  • Kristin Howard
    • 1
  • Joseph Spinazzola
    • 2
  • Helen Strothers
    • 1
  • Mary Evans
    • 1
  • Barry Andres
    • 1
  • Chantal Cohen
    • 1
  • Margaret E. Blaustein
    • 2
  1. 1.The Alaska Child Trauma Center at Anchorage Community Mental Health ServicesAnchorageUSA
  2. 2.The Trauma Center at Justice Resource InstituteUSA

Personalised recommendations