Advertisement

Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 77–99 | Cite as

‘The opposite of a European democracy’: the American real estate lobby, French and British social housing, and the making of the postwar American welfare state, 1945–1949

  • Ben ZdencanovicEmail author
Article

Abstract

This article takes a new approach to the question of postwar American welfare state ‘exceptionalism’ by arguing that scholars should look at ideas and discourses of American welfare exceptionalism in historical context as a social construct and a political project. By focusing on the National Association of Real Estate Boards’ lobbying campaign against US public housing legislation in the late 1940s, I show that US business interests often used the example of Western European welfare state initiatives in order to not only decisively shaped specific pieces of social legislation, but to contest the very meaning of the postwar New Deal state.

Keywords

housing lobbying new deal social policy welfare state 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    ‘Nelson Finds France Fails in Building: No Construction Seen In Paris and Environs Says NAREB Official’, The Hartford Courant, July 25, 1948; Charles T. Stewart, Notes on Housing in Europe (Washington, DC: National Association of Real Estate Boards, 1948).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998); for an overview, seeGoogle Scholar
  3. 2a.
    Christoph Conrad, ‘Social Policy History after the Transnational Turn’, in Beyond Welfare State Models: Transnational Historical Perspectives on Social Policy, ed. Pauli Kettunen and Klaus Petersen (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Ulrike Lindner, ‘The Transfer of European Social Policy Concepts to Tropical Africa, 1900–50: The Example of Maternal and Child Welfare’, Journal of Global History 9, no. 2 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 3a.
    David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)Google Scholar
  6. 3b.
    Daniel T. Rodgers, ‘Bearing Tales: Networks and Narratives in Social Policy Transfer’, Journal of Global History 9, no. 2 (2014).Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    See, for example, Alice Kessler-Harris, In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in Twentieth Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)Google Scholar
  8. 4a.
    Robert C. Lieberman, Shifting the Color Line: Race and the American Welfare State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998)Google Scholar
  9. 4b.
    Michele Landis Dauber, The Sympathetic State: Disaster Relief and the Origins of the American Welfare State (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2013)Google Scholar
  10. 4c.
    Jennifer Klein, For All These Rights: Business, Labor, and the Shaping of America’s Public-Private Welfare State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003)Google Scholar
  11. 4d.
    Jacob S. Hacker, The Divided Welfare State: The Battle Over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 5.
    Jacob Hacker, ‘Bringing the Welfare State Back in: The Promise (and Perils) of the New Social Welfare History’, Journal of Policy History 17 (2005).Google Scholar
  13. 6.
    For older comparative analyses of welfare states, see Frances G. Castles, ed., The Comparative History of Public Policy (Oxford: Polity Press, 1989)Google Scholar
  14. 6a.
    Peter Flora and Arnold Joseph Heidenheimer, eds. The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1981); Health Policies, Health Politics: The British and American Experience, 1911–1965 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986). For a classic critique of comparative approaches, seeGoogle Scholar
  15. 6b.
    Ian Tyrrell, ‘American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History’, The American Historical Review 96 (1991).Google Scholar
  16. 7.
    See, for example, Thomas Bender, ‘Historians, the Nation, and the Plenitude of Narratives’, in Rethinking American History in a Global Age, ed. Thomas Bender (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 7a.
    Daniel Rodgers, ‘Exceptionalism’, in Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Past, ed. Anthony Molho and Gordon S. Wood (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998); for classic theorisations of American exceptionalism, seeGoogle Scholar
  18. 7b.
    Frederick Jackson Tuner, ‘The Significance of the Frontier in American History’, in Report of the American Historical Association (Chicago, IL: American Historical Association, 1893)Google Scholar
  19. 7c.
    Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought Since the Revolution (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1955).Google Scholar
  20. 8.
    For an overview, see Paul Kramer, ‘Power and Connection: Imperial Histories of the United States in the World’, The American Historical Review 116, no. 5 (2011).Google Scholar
  21. 9.
    Micol Siegel, ‘Beyond Compare: Comparative Method after the Transnational Turn’, Radical History Review 91 (2005): 66.Google Scholar
  22. 10.
    Alan Brinkley, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York: Vintage, 1996).Google Scholar
  23. 11.
    For an overview, see Steven Fielding, Peter Thompson, and Nick Tirastoo, ‘England Arise!’: The Labour Party and Popular Politics in 1940s Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  24. 11a.
    Paul Addison, The Road to 1945 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1975).Google Scholar
  25. 12.
    Nelson Lichtenstein has shown this parallel between American labor-liberals’ agenda and those of European social democratic parties most clearly in ‘From Corporatism to Collective Bargaining: Organized Labor and the Eclipse of Social Democracy in the Postwar Era’, in The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930–1980, ed. Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989); see also Jonathan Bell, The Liberal State on Trial: The Cold War and American Politics in the Truman Year (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 13.
    For studies of the postwar conservative backlash against the New Deal, see Elizabeth A. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945–60 (Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  27. 13a.
    Kim Phillips-Fein, Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan (New York: WW. Norton and Company, 2009). Jennifer Klein has argued that much of this conservative counteroffensive was informed by transnational politics. SeeGoogle Scholar
  28. 13b.
    Jennifer Klein, ‘The Politics of Economic Security After World War II’, in Liberty and Justice for All? Rethinking Politics in Cold War America, ed. Kathleen G Donohue (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012).Google Scholar
  29. 14.
    Laura McEnaney, ‘Nightmares on Elm Street: Demobilizing in Chicago, 1945–1953’, The Journal of American History 92, no. 4 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 14a.
    Jack Stokes Ballard, The Shock of Peace: Military and Economic Demobilization after World War II (Washington, DC: The University Press of America, 1983)Google Scholar
  31. 14b.
    P.M. Hauser and A.J. Jaffe, ‘The Extent of the Housing Shortage’, Law and Contemporary Problems 12, no. 1 (1947); ‘The Great Housing Shortage’, Life Magazine 19, no. 25 (1945).Google Scholar
  32. 15.
    Eva Newbrun and Eva H. Oberlander, Houser: The Life and Work of Catherine Bauer (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000)Google Scholar
  33. 15a.
    Paul J. Mitchell, Federal Housing Policy and Programs: Past and Present (New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1985)Google Scholar
  34. 15b.
    Andrew M. Shanken 194X: Architecture, Planning, and Consumer Culture on the American Home Front (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009)Google Scholar
  35. 15c.
    Walter Reuther, ‘Walter Reuther Challenges “Our Fear of Abundance‘“, The New York Times Magazine 8: 32–3, 35; Quote from CIO, ‘Good Shelter for Everyone’ (Washington, DC: Congress of Industrial Organizations, 1944), 1.Google Scholar
  36. 16.
    On price control, rent control and the Office of Price Administration (OPA), see Meg Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), chapter 5Google Scholar
  37. 16a.
    Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Vintage Books, 2003), 66–8Google Scholar
  38. 16b.
    Office of Price Administration, Rent Regulation for Housing: With Official Interpretations (Washington, DC: Office of Price Administration, 1945)Google Scholar
  39. 16c.
    Chester Bowles, ‘Let’s Have a Building Boom That Won’t Bust’, The Saturday Evening Post, September 22, 1945.Google Scholar
  40. 17.
    Richard O. Davies, Housing Reform During the Truman Administration (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1966)Google Scholar
  41. 17a.
    J. Paul Mitchell, Federal Housing Policy and Programs: Past and Present (New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1985), 193–5Google Scholar
  42. 17b.
    Lawrence J. Vale, From the Puritans to the Projects: Public Housing and Public Neighbors (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007), 236Google Scholar
  43. 17c.
    Lawrence J. Vale, Reclaiming Public Housing: A Half Century of Struggle in Three Public Neighborhoods (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  44. 18.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Hugh H. Murray, June 27, 1949, Reprinted as Exhibit 24, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 48; Testimony of Calvin K. Snyder, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 71–3; for overviews of the political activity of the real estate industry, seeGoogle Scholar
  45. 18a.
    Pearl Janet Davies, Real Estate in American History (Public Affairs Press, 1958) andGoogle Scholar
  46. 18b.
    Jeffery M. Hornstein, A Nation of Realtors: A Cultural History of the Twentieth-Century American Middle Class (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 18c.
    Marc. A Weiss, The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and Urban Land Planning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  48. 19.
    Helen Fuller, ‘The Invisible Congress III. The Real-Estate Lobby’, New Republic 110, no. 14 (1944): 463–6.Google Scholar
  49. 20.
    Joseph Meyerhoff, What the Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill Really Means: A Handbook for Speakers, Educators, and Community Leaders (Washington, DC: National Association of Homebuilders, 1945); see alsoGoogle Scholar
  50. 20a.
    National Association of Homebuilders, You’ve Got a Stake in This, Mister (Washington, DC: National Association of Home Builders, 1949).Google Scholar
  51. 21.
    Alexander von Hoffman, ‘Enter the Housing Industry, Stage Right: A Working Paper on the History of Housing Policy’, Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University, February 2008.Google Scholar
  52. 22.
    Ralph H. Clements, ‘Recognize the Profit Incentive’, National Real Estate and Building Journal 46, no. 7 (1945).Google Scholar
  53. 23.
    Catherine Bauer, ‘Housing in the United States: Problems and Policy’, International Labour Review 52, no. 1 (1945): 1.Google Scholar
  54. 24.
    Kenny Cupers, The Social Project: Housing Postwar France (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 24a.
    Nicole C. Rudolph, At Home in Postwar France: Modern Mass Housing and the Right to Comfort (New York: Berghahn, 2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 25.
    Peter Malpass, Housing and the Welfare State: The Development of Housing Policy in Britain (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)Google Scholar
  57. 25a.
    John R. Short, Housing in Britain: The Post-War Experience (London: Methuen, 1982)Google Scholar
  58. 25b.
    Jamileh Manoochehri, Politics of Social Housing in Britain (Oxford: Peter Lang AG, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 25c.
    Nicholas Bullock, Building the PostWar World: Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain (London: Routledge, 2002).Google Scholar
  60. 26.
    Sir William Beveridge, Social Insurance and Allied Services (London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1942)Google Scholar
  61. 26a.
    Peter Mandler, ‘New Towns for the Old: The Fate of the Town Centre’, in Moments of Modernity: Reconstructing Britain, 1945–1964, ed. Becky E. Conekin, Frank Mort, and Chris Waters (London: Rivers Oram Press, 1999), 210; Manoochehri, Politics of Social Housing in Britain, 73–9.Google Scholar
  62. 27.
    Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings; Gail Radford, Modern Housing for America: Policy Struggles in the New Deal Era (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  63. 27a.
    Gerald Daly, ‘The British Roots of American Public Housing’, Journal of Urban History 15 (1989).Google Scholar
  64. 28.
    R. J. Thomas to Frederic J. Osborn, June 20, 1947; Paul Opperman to Frederick J. Osborn, October 21 1947; Frederic J. Osborn to Lewis Mumford, August 20,1947; Catherine Bauer to Frederic J. Osborn, all in Frederic J. Osborn Archive, H22, Hertfordshire Archives; ‘Talks and Meetings in Connection with Mr. F. J. Osborne’s United States Itinerary’, October 16, 1947, Frederic J. Osborn Archive, H23, Hertfordshire Archives.Google Scholar
  65. 29.
    Leonard P. Reaume, ‘What Rent Control Is Doing to Europe’, National Real Estate and Building Journal 48, no. 8 (1947): 39.Google Scholar
  66. 30.
    Frank W. Cortright, A Man’s Home Is Not His Castle: What Public Housing Did to England, a Report for Americans (Washington, DC: The National Association of Home-builders, 1946).Google Scholar
  67. 31.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Hugh A. Murphy, June 27, 1949, reprinted as Exhibit 34, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 553.Google Scholar
  68. 32.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Robert R. McCormick, January 7, 1948, reprinted as Exhibit 103, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 611.Google Scholar
  69. 33.
    ‘NAREB Officials to View Europe’, The Los Angeles Times, June 13,1948;‘To Study European Housing’, New York Times, June 27,1948; ‘Realty Head to Study Housing in Europe’, The Hartford Courant, June 13, 1948.Google Scholar
  70. 34.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Robert R. McCormick, January 7, 1948, reprinted as Exhibit 103, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 611.Google Scholar
  71. 35.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Morton Bodfish, September 2, 1948, reprinted as Exhibit 58, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 577; Stewart, Notes on Housing in Europe; see also Charles T. Stewart, Homes for America (Washington, DC: National Association of Real Estate Boards, Realtors’ Washington Committee, 1948).Google Scholar
  72. 36.
    Stewart, Notes on Housing in Europe, 23.Google Scholar
  73. 37.
    Ibid., 33.Google Scholar
  74. 38.
    ‘U.S. Realtor Attacks British Confiscation of Housing “Utopia”’, The Washington Post, August 29, 1948.Google Scholar
  75. 39.
    Herbert U. Nelson, ‘Londoners Push Work on Housing Projects’, Los Angeles Times, August 22, 1948; ‘England Will Erect Large House Units: Private Construction Awaits Major Public Projects, Nelson Says’, The Hartford Courant, August 22, 1948.Google Scholar
  76. 40.
    Housing and Public Health Committee, ‘Housing Site in Woodberry Down, Stoke Newing-ton’, November 22 and 29, 1935, London County Council Collection, CL/HSL/2/55, London Metropolitan Archives; ‘Site for Housing Purposes, Stoke Newington’, January 29, 1936, London County Council Collection, CL/HSL/2/55, London Metropolitan Archives; Simon Parker, ‘From the Slums to the Suburbs: Labour Party Policy, the LCC, and the Woodberry Down Estate, Stoke Newington, 1934–1961’, London Journal 24, no. 2 (1999).Google Scholar
  77. 41.
    Housing and Public Health Committee, ‘Letter from Stoke Newington Ratepayers’ and Electors’ Association’, May 4, 1936, London County Council Collection, CL/HSL/2/55, London Metropolitan Archives; Leslie Patrick Abercrombie, County of London Plan (London: Macmillan and Company, 1943).Google Scholar
  78. 42.
    ‘Woodberry Down Estate, Block Plan’, mf07534, Hackney Archives; London County Council, Housing: A Survey of the Post War Housing Work of the London County Council, 1945–1949 (London: London County Council, 1949), 65.Google Scholar
  79. 43.
    ‘Woodberry Down Estate, the Happy Man Public House, First Floor, Basement, and Roof Plans’, mf8111, Hackney Archives; Parker, 61; for oral histories and other descriptions of these amenities, designed at the time of the NAREB visit but built in stages between 1948 and 1955, see Woodberry Down Memory Group, Woodberry Down Memories: The History of an LCC Housing Estate (London: ILEA Education Resource Unit for Older People, 1989), 68–1.Google Scholar
  80. 44.
    Architectural descriptions of Woodberry Down are drawn from my firsthand observations of the present-day site and from Nicholas Merthyr Day, ‘The Role of the Architect in Post-War State Housing: A Case Study of the Housing Work of the London County Council, 1939–1956’ (PhD diss., University of Warwick, 1988), 204–14Google Scholar
  81. 44a.
    Woodberry Down Regeneration Team, London - Hackney: Woodberry Down Estate (London: Borough of Hackney, 2000), 23.Google Scholar
  82. 45.
    London County Council, 46–7; The Star, November 7, 1953.Google Scholar
  83. 46.
    ‘Woodberry Down Estate, Foundation and Ground Floor Plan, Block 17’, mf07674, Hackney Archives; ‘England Will Erect Large House Units’, The Hartford Courant, August 22, 1948.Google Scholar
  84. 47.
    D. H. New to W G Whincop, ‘Woodberry Down - Blocks 38 and 39’, November 4, 1948, London County Council Collection, GLC/AR/DS/06/549, London Municipal Archives; London County Council, 62–3.Google Scholar
  85. 48.
    Herbert U. Nelson, ‘Londoners Push Work on Housing Projects’, Los Angeles Times, August 22, 1948.Google Scholar
  86. 49.
    ‘England Will Erect Large House Units’, The Hartford Courant, August 22, 1948; Charles C. Cohan, ‘Fact and Comment’, Los Angeles Times, September 12, 1948.Google Scholar
  87. 50.
    On Ebenezer Howard and the garden city movement, see Stanley Bruder, Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  88. 50a.
    Robert Fishman, Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1982)Google Scholar
  89. 50b.
    Peter Hall, Sociable Cities: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998); on Welwyn Garden City, seeGoogle Scholar
  90. 50c.
    Roger Filler, A History of Welwyn Garden City (Chichester: Phillimore & Company, Limited, 1986).Google Scholar
  91. 51.
    Theodore Chambers, Chairman, Welwyn Garden City Limited to Lewis Silkin, Minister of Town and Country Planning, November 25, 1947; A.B Valentine, Ministry of Town and Country Planning to J.F Eccles, Managing Director, Welwyn Garden City Limited, January 22, 1948; Meeting Notes, Ministry of Town and Country Planning and Welwyn Garden City Limited, February 2,1948, all in Ministry of Town and Country Planning and Successors: New Towns, General and Finance, Registered Files, HLG 90/265, UK National Archives.Google Scholar
  92. 52.
    ‘U.S. Realtor Attacks British Confiscation of Housing “Utopia”’.Google Scholar
  93. 53.
    An Innocent Abroad’, The Daily Herald, August 25, 1948.Google Scholar
  94. 54.
    Journal of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 28 (1948); Herbert U. Nelson to the Board of Directors, National Association of Real Estate Boards, September 21, 1948, reprinted as Exhibit 118, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 645–6; Address of William Craven-Ellis to the Forty-First Annual Convention, National Association of Real Estate Boards, Hotel Commodore, New York City’, reprinted as Exhibit 176, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 719–22.Google Scholar
  95. 55.
    For an overviews, see Daniel Mahoney, Bertrand de Jouvenel: The Conservative Liberal and the Illusions of Modernity (Wilmington: ISI Books, 2005) andGoogle Scholar
  96. 55a.
    Olivier Dard Bertrand de Jouvenel (Paris: Perrin, 2008); for Jouvenel’s brief affiliation with fascism, seeGoogle Scholar
  97. 55b.
    Laurent Kestel, ‘L’engagement de Bertrand de Jouvenel au PPF de 1936 à 1939, intellectuel de parti et entrepreneur politique’, French Historical Studies 30 (2007)Google Scholar
  98. 55c.
    Betrand de Jouvenel, On Power: Its Nature and the History of Its Growth, trans. J.F Huntington (New York: Viking Press, 1948)Google Scholar
  99. 55d.
    Friedrich A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1944); for the foundation of the Mont Pelerin Society (although there is little mention of Jouvenel’s role per se), seeGoogle Scholar
  100. 55e.
    Angus Burgin The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the Depression (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012), chapter 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 56.
    Herbert U. Nelson to Charles E. Channing, January 14, 1949, reprinted as Exhibit 25, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 58; Testimony of Herbert U. Nelson, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 58–60.Google Scholar
  102. 57.
    Bertrand de Jouvenel, No Vacancies (Irvington-on-Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, 1948)Google Scholar
  103. 57a.
    Bertrand de Jouvenel, ‘No Vacancies’, Reader’s Digest (February 1949); For an account of the general influence of Jouvenel on American free market though, seeGoogle Scholar
  104. 57b.
    Annelien de Dijn, ‘Bertrand de Jouvenel and the Revolt Against the State in Post-War America’, Ethical Perspectives 17, no. 3 (2010).Google Scholar
  105. 58.
    Edward S. O’Donnell to the Realtors Washington Committee, January 28, 1949, reprinted as Exhibit 137, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 663.Google Scholar
  106. 59.
    Testimony of Morton Bodfish, Housing Act of 1949: Hearings Before the Committee on Banking and Currency, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1949), 413–24.Google Scholar
  107. 60.
    Testimony of Calvin K. Snyder, Housing Act of 1949: Hearings Before the Committee on Banking and Currency, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1949), 578; Form letter, Calvin K. Snyder to members of the Senate, April 19, 1949, reprinted as Exhibit 451, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 1076; Calvin K. Snyder to Edwin S. O’Donnell, February 8, 1949, reprinted as Exhibit 137, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 664.Google Scholar
  108. 61.
    Testimony of Herbert U. Nelson, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950); Herbert U. Nelson to T.H. Maenner, reprinted as Exhibit 5, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 23–5; Herbert U. Nelson, Headlines Newsletter, April 17, 1950, reprinted in Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 25–8.Google Scholar
  109. 62.
    Ibid., 28.Google Scholar
  110. 63.
    Testimony of Herbert U. Nelson, Hearings Before the House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities, 81st Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 25–9.Google Scholar
  111. 64.
    Radford, Modern Housing for America, 2.Google Scholar
  112. 65.
    Catherine Bauer, ‘The Dreary Deadlock of Public Housing’, Architectural Forum 106, no. 5 (1957): 140.Google Scholar
  113. 66.
    John F. Bauman, Roger Biles, and Kristen M. Szylvian, eds., From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: In Search of an Urban Housing Policy in Twentieth-Century America (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000), 140Google Scholar
  114. 67.
    Alexander Von Hoffman, A Study in Contradictions: The Origins and Legacy of the Housing Act of 1949’, Housing Policy Debate 11, no. 2 (2000); Von Hoffman, ‘The End of the Dream’, 247.Google Scholar
  115. 68.
    Harry S. Truman, ‘Remarks at the 21st Annual Banquet of the National Housing Conference, May 6, 1952’, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1961), 319.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of Transatlantic Studies 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistoryYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations