Advertisement

Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 105–117 | Cite as

NATO’s out-of-area norm from Suez to Afghanistan

  • Veronica M. KitchenEmail author
Article

Abstract

The parameters of NATO’s out-of-area missions are defined not just by the treaty norms encoded in Articles 4 and 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, but also by a social norm entrenched during the Suez crisis. The evolution of the social norm defining the responsibilities allies have to each other in NATO missions, together with changing definitions of security and mutual defence, have led to a situation where the distinction between Article 4 (concerning consultation on global security issues) and Article 5 (concerning mutual defence) is non-existent. This change can help explain the current inter-allied dispute over burden-sharing in NATO’s ISAF mission in Afghanistan.

Keywords

transatlantic security norms Afghanistan NATO 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Elizabeth Sherwood, The Out-of-Area Debate: The Atlantic Alliance and Challenges Beyond Europe (Santa Monica: RAND, 1985)Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    Frode Liland, ‘Explaining NATO’s Non-Policy on Out-of-Area Issues During the Cold War’, in A History of NATO, vol. 1, ed. Gustav Schmidt (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 173–89Google Scholar
  3. 1b.
    Frode Liland, ‘Keeping NATO out of Trouble: NATO’s Non-Policy on Out-of-Area Issues During the Cold War’, Forsvars-studier/Defence Studies 4 (Oslo: The Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, 1999).Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Alexandra Gheciu, ‘International Institutions as Agents of Socialisation?’ International Organisation 59 (Special Issue) (2005): 973–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 2a.
    Rebecca Moore, NATO’s New Mission: Projecting Stability in a Post-Cold War World (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007)Google Scholar
  6. 2c.
    Michael C. Williams, Culture and Security: Symbolic Power and the Politics of International Security (New York: Routledge, 2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.
    NATO, ‘The North Atlantic Treaty’, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/treaty.htm (accessed 4 April 2006).
  8. 4.
    Frode Liland, ‘Explaining NATO’s Non-Policy’.Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    Torunn Laugen, ‘Stumbling into a New Role: NATO’s Out of Area Policy after the Cold War’, Forsvarsstudier/Defence Studies 5 (Oslo: The Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, 1999); Frode Liland, ‘Keeping NATO out of Trouble’Google Scholar
  10. 5a.
    Douglas T. Stuart, ‘The United States and NATO Out-of-Area Disputes: Does the Cold War Provide Precedents, or Merely Prologue?’, in A History of NATO, vol. 1, ed. Gustav Schmidt (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 123–140.Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    Assemblée Nationale, ‘Resolution Adopted by the French National Assembly Regarding the Nationalisation of the Suez Canal Company (2 August)’, in Documents on International Affairs, 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs, Oxford University Press, 1956), 137–138Google Scholar
  12. 6a.
    Anthony Eden, ‘Broadcast by Sir Anthony Eden (8 August)’, in Documents in International Affairs 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press, 1956), 158–161Google Scholar
  13. 6b.
    Anthony Eden, ‘Statement by Sir Anthony Eden in the House of Commons Regarding Establishment of Scua (12 Sept)’, in Documents on International Affairs, 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press, 1956), 205–210Google Scholar
  14. 6c.
    Hugh Gaitskell, ‘Statement in the House of Commons (2 August)’, in Documents in International Affairs 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  15. 7.
    Christian Pineau, ‘Statement in the Assemblée Nationale (3 August)’, in Documents on International Affairs 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press, 1956), 140–150.Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    See, especially, the press conference where Dulles argues that the problems only became unsolveable ‘in the context of great concepts such as “sovereignty” and “dignity” and “grandeur” and the “East vs. the West” and things of that sort’ and that ‘the problems should be solvable if you break them down into concrete things.’ John Foster Dulles, ‘Extract from a Press Conference by Mr. Dulles on SCUA (13 September)’, in Documents on International Affairs, 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: RIIA/Oxford University Press, 1956), 210–219.Google Scholar
  17. 9.
    John Foster Dulles, ‘Reply by Mr. Dulles at a Press Conference Concerning Reports of Differences between the United States and Britain and France Regarding the Suez Canal Users Association (2 October)’, in Documents on International Affairs, 1956, ed. Nobel Frankland (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press, 1956), 248.Google Scholar
  18. 10.
    Mark Smith, NATO Enlargement during the Cold War: Strategy and System in the Western Alliance (London: Palgrave, 2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 11.
    Frode Liland, ‘Explaining NATO’s Non-Policy’ provides a nice overview of the relationship between colonialism and NATO’s out-of-area problems.Google Scholar
  20. 12.
    Thomas Risse-Kappen, Cooperation among Democracies: The European Influence on US Foreign Policy, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  21. 13.
    Torunn Laugen, ‘Stumbling into a New Role’, 16; Douglas T Stuart, ‘The United States and NATO Out-of-Area Disputes’, 133.Google Scholar
  22. 14.
    Veronica Kitchen, ‘Argument and Identity Change in the Atlantic Security Community’ Security Dialogue 40, no. 1 (2009).Google Scholar
  23. 15.
    Liland, ‘Explaining NATO’s Non Policy’. 177, 183.Google Scholar
  24. 16.
    James Baker, ‘The Euro-Atlantic Architecture: From West to East (18 June)’, Department of State Dispatch 2, no. 25 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 17.
    Hans-Dietrich Genscher, ‘Europa - Unsere Zukunft (2 September)’, Bulletin 6, no. 106 (1988).Google Scholar
  26. 18.
    George H.W. Bush, ‘A Time of Decision for the NATO Alliance (7 November)’, Department of State Dispatch 2, no. 25 (1991).Google Scholar
  27. 19.
    Rebecca Moore, NATO’s New Mission: Projecting Stability in a Post-Cold War World, (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007).Google Scholar
  28. 20.
    Jean Chrétien, ‘Speech by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation of Europe (5 July)’, (Copenhagen, 1995)Google Scholar
  29. 20a.
    Bernard Kouchner, ‘Conférence Internationale Humanitaire Sur L’ex-Yougoslavie -Discours Prononcé Par Le Ministre De La Santé Et De L’action Humanitaire’, Politique Etrangère de la France 1992, no. Juillet (1992)Google Scholar
  30. 20b.
    Barbara McDougall, ‘An Address by the Honourable Barbara Mcdougall, Secretary of State for External Affairs, to a Seminar on Canada’s Agenda for International Peace and Security (8 February)’, Statements & Speeches 93, no. 7 (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 20c.
    Volker Rühe, ‘Europa Und Nordamerika Auf Dem Weg Ins 21. Jahrhundert (29 May)’, Bulletin, no. 45 (1995).Google Scholar
  32. 21.
    See the UK House of Commons interventions by Douglas Hurd ‘Foreign Affairs and Defence Debate (17 November)’ HC Deb no. 250, col. 134 (1994)Google Scholar
  33. 21a.
    Patrick Cormack, ‘Former Yugoslavia (9 May)’, HC Deb no. 259, col. 607 (1995).Google Scholar
  34. 22.
    NATO, ‘Prague Summit Declaration’, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/pr/2002/p02–127e.htm (accessed 8 Sept, 2005).
  35. 23.
    NATO, ‘Prague Summit Declaration’, emphasis added.Google Scholar
  36. 24.
    ‘The National Security Strategy of the United States of America’, https://doi.org/www.whitehou-se.gov/nsc/nss/2002/nss3.html (September 2002) (accessed 18 November 2008). I am grateful to a JTS reviewer for this point.
  37. 25.
    Jean Chrétien, ‘Notes for an Address by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien on the Occasion of a Special House of Commons “Take Note” Debate on the International Campaign against Terror (15 October 2001)’, https://doi.org/www.pcobcp.gc.ca/default.asp?Language=E&Page=archivechretien&Sub=Speeches&Doc=houseofcommons.20011015_e.htm (accessed 2 November 2006)Google Scholar
  38. 25a.
    Jack Straw, ‘Building a Better, Safer World’, https://doi.org/www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=News&id=2180147 (accessed 10 January 2007)Google Scholar
  39. 25b.
    Hubert Védrine, ‘Opérations Militaires En Afghanistan: Entretien Du Ministre Des Affaires Etrangères, M. Hubert Védrine, Avec “France Inter” Et “France Info”’, https://doi.org/www.doc.diplomatie.fr/BASIS/epic/www/doc/DDD/940081156.doc (accessed 11 January 2007)Google Scholar
  40. 25c.
    Colin Powell, ‘Interview on NBC’s Today Show with Matt Lauer’, https://doi.org/www.state.gov/secretary/former/powell/remarks/2001/5297.htm (accessed 10 January 2001)Google Scholar
  41. 25d.
    Joschka Fischer, ‘Rede Des Bundesministers Des Auswärtigen Zur Aktuellen Lage Nach Beginn Der Operation Gegen Den Internationalen Terrorismus in Afghanistan Vor Dem Deutschen Bundestag (11 October)’, Bulletin 69, no. 2 (2001)Google Scholar
  42. 25e.
    George Walker Bush, ‘Presidential Address to the Nation’, https://doi.org/www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/10/20011007-8.html (accessed 10 January 2007)Google Scholar
  43. 25g.
    Robin Cook, ‘Briefing to Arab Journalists by Robin Cook on the Operations in Afghanistan’, https://doi.org/www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=News&id=2180040 (accessed 10 January 2007)Google Scholar
  44. 25h.
    Gerhard Schröder, ‘Regierungserklärung Zur Aktuellen Lage Nach Beginn Der Operation Gegen Den International Terrorismus in Afghanistan Vor Dem Deutschen Bundestag (11 October)’, Bulletin 69, no. 1 (2001).Google Scholar
  45. 26.
    Robert Gates, ‘Munich Conference on Security Policy (10 February)’, ed. Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) (2008)Google Scholar
  46. 26a.
    Condoleezza Rice, ‘Afghanistan: David Miliband and Condoleezza Rice’, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, https://doi.org/www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=News&id=1534051 (accessed 28 May 2008)Google Scholar
  47. 26b.
    Nicolas Sarkozy, ‘Intervention De M. Le Président De La République, Sommet De L’otan, Réunion Consacrée A L’afghanistan (3 April 2008)’, https://doi.org/www.elysee.fr/documents/index.php?mode=cview&press_id=1243&cat_id=7&lang=fr (accessed 28 May 2008)Google Scholar
  48. 26c.
    Campbell Clark. ‘Harper Backs Manley and Vows to Press NATO’. The Globe and Mail, January 29, 2008, A1Google Scholar
  49. 26d.
    Paul Wells. ‘NATO Getting Jittery over Canada, Netherlands Leaving Afghanistan’. Maclean’s, August 6, 2007Google Scholar
  50. 26e.
    Tony Blair, ‘Doorstep at NATO Summit in Riga (29 November)’, https://doi.org/www.number10.gov.uk/output/Page10505.asp (accessed 21 February 2007).Google Scholar
  51. 27.
    Susanne Koelbl and Alexander Szandar. ‘US Demands More German Troops at Taliban Front’. SpiegelOnline, February 1, 2008, https://doi.org/www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,532476,00.html (accessed 28 May 2008).Google Scholar
  52. 28.
    Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, ‘Afghanistan and NATO: Forging the 21st Century Alliance (29 February 2008)’, NATO, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/speech/2008/s080229a.html.
  53. 29.
    Ben Lombardi, ‘All Politics is Local: Germany, the Bundeswehr, and Afghanistan’, International Journal 63, no. 3 (2008): 587–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 30.
    Janice Gross Stein and Eugene Lang, The Unexpected War: Canada in Kandahar, (Toronto: Viking Canada, 2007).Google Scholar
  55. 31.
    Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’, International Organisation 52, no. 4 (1998): 887–917.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of Transatlantic Studies 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations