Advertisement

Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 476–492 | Cite as

The structural and political crisis of NATO transformation

  • Andrew T. WolffEmail author
Article

Abstract

Under the moniker of transformation, NATO members initiated reforms that have greatly expanded alliance responsibilities. These reforms have redefined security concerns to encompass terrorism, nuclear-proliferation, and energy security and have enlarged the geographic reach of Article V guarantees by extending membership to 12 East European states. Also, NATO has added two new responsibilities to its mandate: democratisation tasks and global peacekeeping operations. Evidence suggests these ambitious transformation policies are creating instabilities within the alliance. The three transformation spheres of responsibilities — security guarantor, democracy promoter, and global interventionist — structurally conflict with one another in NATO operations in Afghanistan and the Balkans. There is a lack of political support for NATO’s broadened responsibilities and this threatens alliance credibility. Only by diminishing the transformation mission set or increasing coordinated political support can NATO remedy the structural and political crises caused by NATO transformation.

Keywords

NATO transformation security international organization Afghanistan Kosovo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    London Declaration, 6 July 1990, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/b900706a.htm.
  2. 2.
    Kenneth Waltz, ‘The Emerging Structure of International Politics’, International Security 18, no. 2 (Autumn 1993): 75–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    For examples of this view see Charles Kupchan, ‘Reviving the West’ Foreign Affairs (June/Summer 1996): 98–100Google Scholar
  4. 3a.
    David P. Calleo, ‘NATO: Reconstruction or Dissolution?’, Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute Paper (1992), 17–19.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    The Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland entered the alliance in 1999. Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined in 2004. Croatia and Albania obtained membership bids in 2008 but are excluded from these landmass calculations.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Figures calculated from CIA World Factbook 2006 country statistics.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    The alliance has had inter-ethnic problems such as the Basques in Spain or catholic-protestant fighting in North Ireland, but these difficulties did not involve the possibility of an outside power intervening to protect its ethnic minorities such as the case of Russia desiring to protect its minorities in ex-Soviet countries.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Quote from Reuters, 14 June 2007, https://doi.org/uk.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUKJOH45001020070614. For more information on the Estonia cyber-attacks see Anne Applebaum, ‘For Estonia and NATO, A New Kind of War’, Washington Post, 22 May 2005, A15.
  9. 8.
    See Paul Gallis, ‘NATO and Energy Security’, CRS Report for Congress, RS22409, 15 August 2007, 5.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    For a discussion of NATO’s abilities and effectiveness in transmitting liberal-democratic norms, see Alexandra Gheciu, ‘Security Institutions as Agents of Socialization? NATO and the “New Europe”’, International Organization 59 (Fall 2005): 973–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    NATO London Declaration, 6 July 1990, paragraph 2, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/b900706a.htm.
  12. 11.
    Speech at John Moores University, Liverpool, 6 September 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Author interviews at NATO headquarters in Brussels, October 2006.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    This ISP program began in October 2001. For more details see ‘Security through Partnership’, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2005, 35.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    For more information on these relief efforts see EADRCC, ‘Pakistan Earthquake Relief Operation’, 3 August 2006, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/eadrcc/2005/pakistan/index.htm, and Agency France-Presse, ‘NATO Rapid Response Planes Gather Aid for Storm-shattered U.S.’, 15 September 2005.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    ‘Alliance Strategic Concept’, Washington, DC, 24 April 1999, paragraph 33.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    NATO initiated operation ‘Deny Flight’ 10 months earlier to enforce the UN-mandated no fly zone authorised by UN Security Council Resolution 816.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    For a general summary, see https://doi.org/www.nato.int/ISAF/docu/epub/pdf/isaf_placemat.pdf. At 1 April 2008, the breakdown of troops deployed with ISAF were: US 19,000, UK 7750, Germany 3490, Canada 2500, Italy 2360, Netherlands 1730, France 1430, Poland 1020, Spain 770, Turkey 750, Denmark 690, Norway 540, Romania 530, Australia 500, Bulgaria 400, Belgium 360, Sweden 350, Czech Republic 290, Lithuania 260, Hungary 250, Croatia 210, Portugal 170, Albania 140, Greece 130, Macedonia 130, Estonia 120, New Zealand 110, Finland 100, Latvia 100, Jordan 90, Slovenia 70, Slovakia 60, Azerbaijan 40, Iceland 10, Luxemburg 9, Ireland 7, Ukraine 3, Austria 2, Singapore 2, Switzerland 2.
  19. 18.
    For an assessment of PRTs, see Michael J. Mcnerny, ‘Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle?’, Parameters (Winter 2005-2006): 32–46.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    At the Istanbul Summit of June 2004 the alliance agreed to a ‘Training Implementation Mission’ in Iraq. The alliance has since trained almost 5000 officers inside and outside of Iraq. See ‘NATO’s Assistance in Iraq’, 3 May 2007, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/issues/iraq-assistance/practice.html.
  21. 20.
    On 7 June 2007 NATO agreed to provide airlift support to the African Union mission in Somalia.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    ‘NATO/Israel Cooperation in the Framework of the Mediterranean Dialogue’, 16 October 2006, https://doi.org/www.nato.int/docu/pr/2006/p06-123e.htm.
  23. 22.
    See Richard Kugler, ‘The NATO Response Force 2002–2006: Innovation by the Atlantic Alliance’, Case Studies in Defense Transformation #1, National Defense University, 1–20. NRF obtained full operational strength in November 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    For a summary of this proposal, see Vince Crawley, ‘NATO Leaders to Discuss Global Missions at Riga Summit’, USINFO, 21 November 2006, https://doi.org/usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/displayhtml?p=washfile-english&y=2006&m=November&x=20061121164755mvyelwarc6.954372e-03.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Ivo Daalder and James Goldgeier, ‘Global NATO’, Foreign Affairs (September/October 2006): 106. Ivo Daalder became US Ambassador to NATO in May 2009.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Peter Spiegel, ‘Gates Faults NATO Force in Southern Afghanistan’, Los Angeles Times, 18 January 2008 andGoogle Scholar
  27. 25a.
    Carlotta Gall, ‘Afghan Leader Criticizes U.S. on Conduct of War’, New York Times, 26 April 2008.Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    On the current problems of reconstruction, see Seth Jones, ‘Averting Failure in Afghanistan’, Survival 48, no. 1 (2006): 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27.
    Sylvie Briand, ‘NGOs in Afghanistan Fear Backlash Over NATO’s Humanitarian Role’, Agence France-Presse, 6 November 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    NATO ‘Progress in Afghanistan’ Bucharest Summit Report 2–4 April 2008, 13 and General James L. Jones and Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering, ‘Afghanistan Study Group Report’, Center for the Study of the Presidency, 30 January 2008, 20–22.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Nikola Krastev, ‘Afghanistan: NATO Commander Says Drugs Biggest Threat’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 9 February 2006.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Quoted by Aryn Baker, ‘Afghan Corruption a Growing Concern’, Time, 31 March 2008, https://doi.org/www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1726620,00.html.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Ann Marlowe, ‘Winning Afghanistan’, New York Post, 10 February 2008, addresses persistent economic and corruption problems in Afghanistan and how these plague the alliance.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Peter Spiegel, ‘Gates Faults NATO Force in Southern Afghanistan’, Los Angeles Times, 18 January 2008.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Greg Grant, ‘Shortage of Helicopters Hampers Troops in Afghanistan’, GovernmentExecutive.com/dailyfed/0308/033108g1.htm.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Speech by Senator John McCain, Munich Conference on Security Policy, 10 February 2007, https://doi.org/www.securityconference.de/konferenzen/rede.php?id=186&sprache=en&.
  37. 35.
    Macedonia was the third membership candidate at the Bucharest summit but Greece vetoed its accession application due to a dispute over Macedonia’s name. Once this dispute is resolved, in all likelihood, Macedonia will quickly join NATO.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Cited by Igor Jovanovic, ‘Serbia Lashes Out at NATO’, ISN Security Watch, 18 September 2007, https://doi.org/www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=18134.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Statistics for the Kosovo economy come from the CIA World Factbook, 1 May 2008.Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    Jason Franks and Oliver P. Richmond, ‘Coopting Liberal Peace-building: Untying the Gordian Knot in Kosovo’, Cooperation and Conflict 43, no. 1 (2008): 82, 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 38a.
    For problems with international efforts to reform the criminal and judicial system, see Irene Bernabéu, ‘Laying the Foundations of Democracy? Reconsidering Security Sector Reform under UN Auspices in Kosovo’, Security Dialogue 38, no. 1 (March 2007): 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 39.
    A mid-March Spiegel/TNS poll revealed that 57% of Germans wanted complete withdrawal from Afghanistan. See ‘Afghanistan Divides Germany’s Social Democrats’, Spiegel Online International, 20 March 2007, https://doi.org/www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,472696,00.html.
  43. 40.
    See Hugh Williamson, ‘Germany Sends Warplanes to Afghanistan’, Financial Times, 9 March 2007, https://doi.org/www.ft.com/cms/s/5cda487c-ce4e-11db-b5c8-000b5df10621.html.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    Tim Noetzel and Benjamin Schreer, ‘All the Way? The Evolution of German Military Power’, International Affair 84, no. 3 (2008): 218–220.Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Reported in Konstantin von Hammerstein, Hans Hoyng, Hans-Jürgen Schlamp and Alexander Szandar, ‘NATO Chaos Deepens in Afghanistan: The Germans Have to Learn to Kill’, Spiegel Online International, 20 November 2006, https://doi.org/www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,449479-2,00.html.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    For a brief overview of these caveats see Reuters, ‘Restrictions on NATO Troops in Afghanistan’, 26 November 2006, https://doi.org/www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L26451165.htm.
  47. 44.
    For a brief summary of the Italian crisis, see ‘Pasta and Fries’, Economist, 22 February 2007, https://doi.org/www.economist.com/world/europe/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8746411. As in Germany, the majority of Italians (62%) also want withdrawal from Afghanistan. See Tariq Ali, ‘Official Politics in the West Ignores Public Opinion at Will’, The Guardian, 27 February 2007, 30, https://doi.org/www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/feb/27/italy.comment.Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    This idea stems from Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld’s frequent use of the phrase ‘the mission determines the coalition’ after the 9/11 attacks. Michael Rühe writes that the toolbox idea allows alliance members to craft custom-made policies and coalitions is ‘here to stay’. He also admits that the toolbox concept runs counter to the idea of NATO being a ‘cohesive, all-for-one and one-for-all organization’. See Michael Rühe, ‘NATO after Prague’, Parameters (Summer 2003): 89–97.Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    See article by Christian Tuschhoff, ‘The Future of NATO: Military Toolbox or Strategic Actor?’, American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 10 March 2005, https://doi.org/www.aicgs.org/analysis/c/tuschhoff03102005.aspx.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    Steven Weisman, ‘Threats and Responses: The Alliance; Fallout from the Iraq Rift: NATO May Feel a Strain’, New York Times, 11 February 2003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of Transatlantic Studies 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dickinson CollegeCarlisleUSA

Personalised recommendations