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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 279–289 | Cite as

John Foster Dulles: moralism and anti-communism

  • Dianne Kirby
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Walter Russell Mead, Special Providence: American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World (New York: Routledge, 2002).Google Scholar
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    This is a well-explored theme in American history books. See Conrad Cherry, ed., God’s New Israel: Religious Interpretations of American Destiny (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).Google Scholar
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    See, for example, the work of James Burnham, philosophy professor and CIA consultant, The Struggle for the World (1947), The Coming Defeat of Communism (1950) and Containment or Liberation (1953).Google Scholar
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    Hitler’s mobilisation of religion, as part of his ‘crusade’ against the Soviet Union, was disregarded. See S.M. Miner, Stalin’s Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941–1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).Google Scholar
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    Scott Lucas, Freedom’s War: The US Crusade against the Soviet Union, 1945–1956 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998). For a contemporary comment on the distance between Dulles’s rhetoric and policyGoogle Scholar
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    see Joseph C. Harsch, ‘John Foster Dulles: A Very Complicated Man’, Harper’s Magazine 213 (September 1956), 27–34: ‘He has appeared to be a crusading knight bearing the cross of righteousness on his shield, his sword upraised against the foe and his voice calling for the charge. But if your glance descends from this stirring picture, you notice that the charger he bestrides is ambling placidly in the opposite direction.’Google Scholar
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    Dulles was the first secretary of state to have an official audience with the pope. Frederick W. Marks III, Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles (London: Praeger, 1995), 77.Google Scholar
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    Memorandum of NSC meeting, 5 August 1954, FRUS 1952–54, 2: 706–7.Google Scholar
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    The influence of Christian thinking about nuclear war, including the abolition of nuclear weapons, can be discerned in Dulles’s recorded conversations with the president, ‘Meetings with the President, August-December, 1956 (2),’ Eisenhower Library, and in ‘Papers on Nuclear Weapons 1/56 (1),’ Eisenhower Library.Google Scholar
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    For a full historiographical discussion, see Klaus Larres, Churchill’s Cold War: The Politics of Personal Diplomacy (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
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  51. 50.
    It was, of course, Dulles’s withdrawal of the Anglo-American offer to fund building the Aswan Dam, following Nasser’s recognition of China in May 1956 that prompted the crisis.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Taylor & Francis 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dianne Kirby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversity of UlsterBelfastNorthern Ireland, UK

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