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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 290–304 | Cite as

President Harry Truman’s Secretaries of State: Stettinius, Byrnes, Marshall and Acheson

  • Michael F. Hopkins
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Martin Weil, A Pretty Good Club (New York: Norton, 1978), 105.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    William D. Leahy, I Was There (New York: Harper, 1950)Google Scholar
  3. 2a.
    George M. Elsey, An Unplanned Life (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2005), 18–47Google Scholar
  4. 2b.
    Richard L. Walker, E. R. Stettinius, Jr (New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1965), 12–14Google Scholar
  5. 2c.
    Irwin F. Gellman, Secret Affairs: FDR, Cordell Hull, and Sumner Welles (New York: Enigma Books, 2002), 1–19, 20–30.Google Scholar
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    Warren Kimball, The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  7. 3.
    Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins (New York: Harper, 1948)Google Scholar
  8. 3a.
    Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation (New York: Norton, 1969), 12.Google Scholar
  9. 4.
    Walker, Stettinius, 1-26; Randall Bennett Woods, A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, 1941–1946 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990), 154–5, 210Google Scholar
  10. 4a.
    Charles Bohlen, Witness to History 1929–1969 (New York: W W Norton & Co. 1973), 166.Google Scholar
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    On reorganisation, see Department of State Bulletin X, no. 238 (15 January 1944), 43–67 and vol. XI, No 286A Supplement, 17 December 1944, 777-814; on the UN, see Stephen C. Schlesinger, Act of Creation: The Founding of the United Nations (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2003). Walker, Stettinius, 60–83. Stettinius served as the first US Representative to the UN, December 1945-June 1945; he died in 1949.Google Scholar
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    David Robertson, Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F Byrnes (New York: Norton, 1994), 446.Google Scholar
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    Robert L. Messer, The End of an Alliance: James F Byrnes, Roosevelt, and the Origins of the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 31–70.Google Scholar
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    Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, eds, Diaries of E.R. Stettinius, Jr, 1943–1946 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975), 184.Google Scholar
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    Joseph Alsop and Robert Kintner, ‘Sly and Able’, Saturday Evening Post, 20 July 1940; Robertson, Sly and Able, 447.Google Scholar
  16. 10.
    Bohlen, Witness to History, 256-7.Google Scholar
  17. 11.
    Robertson, Sly and Able, 443, citing Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman (New York: Harper & Row, 1980), 49.Google Scholar
  18. 12.
    James F. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly (New York: Harper, 1947), 245. He later published All in One Lifetime (New York: Harper).Google Scholar
  19. 13.
    Barry Rubin, Secrets of State (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)Google Scholar
  20. 13a.
    Henry Wriston, ‘The Secretary of State Abroad’, Foreign Affairs (July 1956), 523.Google Scholar
  21. 14.
    Robertson, Sly and Able, 443.Google Scholar
  22. 15.
    Robertson, Sly and Able, 446; Messer, End of Alliance, 126. Achilles made the claim in his oral history interview for the Dulles Oral History Project but omitted it in his Truman Library Oral History.Google Scholar
  23. 16.
    Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 246.Google Scholar
  24. 17.
    Clemson University, Special Collections, Walter Brown Papers, Box 7, Folder 15, Foreign Policy Manual, September 1945.Google Scholar
  25. 18.
    Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 246–7; Robertson, Sly and Able, 443; Clemson University, Special Collections, James F Byrnes Papers, State Department, Box 11, folder 18, News Clippings, 1945–1946, Frank Gervasi, ‘New Statesman - New World’, Collier’s, 20 October 1945, 14–15, 80–82 describes Byrnes’s working practices.Google Scholar
  26. 19.
    Acheson, Present at the Creation, 163.Google Scholar
  27. 20.
    FRUS: The Conference of Berlin, 1945 2 vols; the protocol encompassing the main conference agreements is in vol II, 1478–98 (quotation at 1486).Google Scholar
  28. 21.
    FRUS 1945 II, 99–559.Google Scholar
  29. 22.
    James F Byrnes, ‘Report on First Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers’, 5 October 1945, in Department of State Bulletin XIII, no. 328 (7 October 1945), 507–12.Google Scholar
  30. 23.
    FRUS 1945 II, 560–826.Google Scholar
  31. 24.
    W. Averell Harriman and Elie Abel, Special Envoy to Churchill and Stalin 1941–1946 (London: Hutchinson; 1976), 524. Messer, End of Alliance, 259 n32 claims that Byrnes communicated regularly with Washington, citing FRUS 1945 II, 609–10, 760, 815–24.Google Scholar
  32. 25.
    Robertson, Sly and Able, 454–7. The text of the letter was first published in William Hillman, Mr President (New York: Farrar, Straus and Young, 1952), 21–3.Google Scholar
  33. 26.
    George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925–1950 (New York, 1967), 549–51 contains the text of the Long Telegram. James Byrnes, ‘… we have pinned our hopes to the banner of the United Nations’, 28 February 1946, in Department of State Bulletin XIV, no. 349 (10 March 1946), 355–8 (quotation at 358).Google Scholar
  34. 27.
    FRUS 1946 VII, 340.Google Scholar
  35. 28.
    FRUS 1946 VII, 362–4.Google Scholar
  36. 29.
    Robert J. Donovan, Conflict and Crisis: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman, 1945–1949 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977), 194–5.Google Scholar
  37. 30.
    Robertson, Sly and Able, 462–3.Google Scholar
  38. 31.
    FRUS 1946 III (CFM) and IV (Peace Conference).Google Scholar
  39. 32.
    The text of the speech is in Department of State Bulletin XV, no. 376 (15 September 1946), 496–501.Google Scholar
  40. 33.
    Arthur Krock, Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1968), 421–82.Google Scholar
  41. 34.
    Clark Clifford with Richard Holbrooke, Counsel to the President: A Memoir (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 110–12; Elsey, An Unplanned Life, 138–44.Google Scholar
  42. 35.
    Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 226.Google Scholar
  43. 36.
    Dean Acheson, Sketches from Life (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1961), 144–5.Google Scholar
  44. 37.
    For full details of Marshall’s efforts, see State Department, United States Relations with China with Special Reference to the Period 1944–1949 [The China White Paper] (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1949).Google Scholar
  45. 38.
    Clemson University, Special Collections, James F. Byrnes Papers, State Department, Box 20, Folder 3, United Nations News Clippings 1947–1953, James Reston, ‘Marshall Held Aloof at Conference in Moscow’, New York Times, 30 April 1947.Google Scholar
  46. 39.
    Harry S. Truman Library, Oral History Interview with Charles Murphy, Special Counsel to the President, 27. Acheson shared Truman’s opinion, saying that he admired Marshall more than any other living person; Douglas Brinkley, Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), 7.Google Scholar
  47. 40.
    Bohlen, Witness to History, 259.Google Scholar
  48. 41.
    Wilson D. Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947–1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), 5.Google Scholar
  49. 42.
    Clark Clifford, Counsel to President, 16.Google Scholar
  50. 43.
    FRUS 1947 II, 139–576.Google Scholar
  51. 44.
    FRUS 1947 V, 32–45; US Senate, Foreign Relations Committee, Historical Series, Legislative Origins of the Truman Doctrine (March-April 1947) (New York: Garland Publishing, 1979). See also Joseph M. Jones, The Fifteen Weeks (February 21-June 5, 1947) (New York: Viking, 1955), a vivid, indeed heroic, account by a former State Department official that influenced many later studies, which contains the texts of key speeches by Truman, Acheson and Marshall.Google Scholar
  52. 45.
    FRUS 1947 III, 197–484; FRUS 1948 III, 352–400; Marshall’s 28 April speech is in Department of State Bulletin XVI, no. 410 (11 May 1947), 919–24.Google Scholar
  53. 46.
    Harry B. Price, The Marshall Plan and Its Meaning (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1955) is an early study that stresses ERP’s vital role.Google Scholar
  54. 46a.
    Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe 1945–51 (London: Methuen, 1984) questioned such claims.Google Scholar
  55. 46b.
    Greg Behrman, The Most Noble Adventure (New York: Free Press, 2007) is the most recent study; it is positive about the benefits but more reserved in its claims.Google Scholar
  56. 47.
    FRUS 1947 II, 728–72 (CFM meetings), 811–30 (post-CFM talks).Google Scholar
  57. 48.
    US Senate, Foreign Relations Committee, Historical Series, The Vandenberg Resolution and the North Atlantic Treaty (May, June 1948; February, March, April, June 1949) (New York: Garland Publishing, 1979); FRUS 1948 III, 333–3 (draft treaty).Google Scholar
  58. 49.
    Walter LaFeber, The American Age: US Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad, 1750 to the Present, 2nd edn (New York: Norton, 1994), 468.Google Scholar
  59. 50.
    Harry S. Truman, Memoirs II: Years of Trial and Hope (New York: New English Library edn, 1965), 487.Google Scholar
  60. 51.
    James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State who Created the American World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), 441.Google Scholar
  61. 52.
    For details of these negotiations see Michael F. Hopkins, Oliver Franks and the Truman Administration, 1948–1952 (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 108–14Google Scholar
  62. 52a.
    and Sir Nicholas Henderson, The Birth of NATO (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1982). On military assistanceGoogle Scholar
  63. 52b.
    see Chester P. Pach, Arming the Free World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  64. 53.
    Acheson, Present at the Creation, 267–88; FRUS 1949 III, 709–16.Google Scholar
  65. 54.
    Department of State Bulletin XXII, no. 555 (20 February 1950), 272–74; Department of State Bulletin XXII, no. 559 (20 March 1950), 427–9; FRUS 1950 I, 246–85.Google Scholar
  66. 55.
    On Acheson’s legal argument, see Department of State Bulletin XXIII, no. 57 (31 July 1950), 173–8.Google Scholar
  67. 56.
    FRUS 1950 VII and FRUS 1951 VII Part 1 provide details on Korean policy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Taylor & Francis 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael F. Hopkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversity of LiverpoolUK

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