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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 87–106 | Cite as

Irish Protestants and the Creation of the Bible Belt

  • Barry Vann
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Notes

  1. 1.
    James Leyburn, Scotch-Irish: A Social History (Chapel Hill, 1962), 167.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Barry Vann, Rediscovering the South’s Celtic Heritage (Johnson City, TN, 2004), 124.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Patrick Griffin, The People with No Name: Ireland’s Ulster Scots, America’s Scots Irish, and the Creation of a British Atlantic World, 1689-1764 (Princeton, 2001), 65–98.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Ian Adamson, cited in Billy Kennedy, The Scots-Irish in the Hills of Tennessee (Belfast, 1995), 14.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
  6. 7.
    Leyburn, Scotch-Irish History, 169. Leyburn contended that poor economic conditions in Ulster precipitated the five migration flows. They occurred in 1717-18, 1725-29, 1740-41, 1754-55, and 1771-75.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Griffin, The People with No Name, 104.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Robert D. Mitchell,‘The Shenandoah Valley Frontier’, in David Ward, ed., Geographic Perspectives on America’s Past: Readings on the Historical Geography of the United States (New York, 1979), 151.Google Scholar
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    John Mack Faragher, Daniel Boone: The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer (New York, 1992), 310.Google Scholar
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    Griffin, The People with No Name, 165.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Kennedy, Scots-Irish in the Hills of Tennessee, 27, 146–47. Isaac Anderson established MaryviUe College, Samuel Doak is associated with establishing Tusculum College, and Samuel Carrick served as the first president of Blount College. It later grew into the University of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Ibid. See also Barry Vann, ‘Presbyterian Social Ties and Mobility in the Irish Sea Culture Area’, Journal of Historical Sociology (2005), Vol. 18, No 3, 227–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chris Park, Sacred Worlds: An Introduction to Geography and Religion (London, 1994), 87–91.Google Scholar
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    Wilbur Zelinsky, ‘An Approach to the Religious Geography of the United States: Patterns of Church Membership in the United States’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers (1961), Vol. 51, 139–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 17.
    Charles Heatwole, ‘The Bible Belt: a Problem in Regional Definition’, Journal of Geography (1978), Vol. 77, 50–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 18.
    For a comparison of the maps, see Park, Sacred Worlds, 82, 88.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Steve Tweedie, ‘Viewing the Bible Belt’, Journal of Popular Culture (1978), 865–76.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Ibid. 873.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Ibid. 865.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    These two areas of are regarded as Scotch-Irish ethnic islands. See Jerome D. Fellman, Arthur Getis, and Judith Getis, Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 9th Ed. (New York, 2007), 189.Google Scholar
  22. 22a.
    See also Rüssel Gerlach, Settlement Patterns in Missouri (Columbia, 1986), 41. Vann, Rediscovering the South’s Celtic Heritage, uses the more ambiguous “Celtic realm” label to identify the Upland South.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grady McWhiney, Cracher Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South (Tuscaloosa, 1988)Google Scholar
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    David Hackett Fischer, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America (Oxford, 1989).Google Scholar
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    Griffin, People with No Name.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
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  28. 26a.
    Cratis Williams, cited in Robert J. Higgs and Ambrose N. Manning, Voices from the Hills (New York, 1975), 493–506.Google Scholar
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    Richard Blaustein, The Thistle and the Brier: Historical Links and Cultural Parallels Between Scotland and Appalachia (Jefferson, NC, 2003).Google Scholar
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  31. 29.
    James Webb, Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America (Danvers, MA, 2004), 289.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    John K. Wright, ‘Notes on Early American Geopiety’, in Human Nature in Geography (Cambridge, 1966). See also Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom, 71–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    David M. Burns, Gateway: Dr. Thomas Walker & the Opening of Kentucky (Middlesboro, 2000), 8–9.Google Scholar
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    Robert McCrum, Robert McNeil, and William Cran, The Story of English, Third Revised Ed. (New York, 2002), 164.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    This point is often overlooked by those who focus their attention on the re-creation of ethnic identities and its political implications. See Blaustein, Thistle and the Brier; Celeste Ray, Highland Heritage: Scottish Americans in the American South (Chapel Hill, 2001).Google Scholar
  37. 34a.
    For the idea that America was to be a model for wayward Europeans, see Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, Mass., 1976)Google Scholar
  38. 34b.
    and Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom: History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America (Cambridge, 2002).Google Scholar
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    Blaustein points out that those who try to recapture lost ethnic ways are called “cultural missionaries”. See Blaustein, Thistle and the Brier.Google Scholar
  40. 36.
    Fellman, Getis, Judith Getis, Human Geography, 189. See also Gerlach, Settlement Patterns in Missouri, 41.Google Scholar
  41. 37.
    Griffin, The People with No Name.Google Scholar
  42. 38.
    Vann, Rediscovering the South’s Celtic Heritage.Google Scholar
  43. 39.
    Robert Blair, Life of Mr. Robert Blair: Containing his Autobiography, from 1593 to 1636, T. M’Crie, ed. (Edinburgh, 1848). 76.Google Scholar
  44. 40.
    Blair and others in the Kirk’s General Assembly were instrumental in approving the Scottish National Covenant, which David George Mullan argues is an example of Scottish National Divinity. See Mullan, Scottish Puritanism 1590-1638 (Oxford, 2000), 244–84.Google Scholar
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    Wright, ‘Notes on Early American Geopiety’; See also Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom, 71-2.Google Scholar
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    Ibid, see also John W. Lockington, Robert Blair of Bangor (Edinburgh, 1996), 5–17.Google Scholar
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    Geopiety refers to the commitment emotional side of religion tied to space. See Wright, ‘Notes on Early American Geopiety’; See also Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom, 71, 3.Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    Andrew Herron, Kirk by Divine Right (Edinburgh, 1985).Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    Francis Makemie, Answer to George Keith’s Libel (1694), in J. M. Barkley, Francis Makemie: Father of American Presbyterianism (Belfast, 1981), 10.Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    Kennedy, Scots-Irish in the Hills of Tennessee, 145.Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    In using the Anglo-Scottish label, the author includes both northern English folk and Lowland Scots.Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    Robert Bell, The Book of Ulster Surnames (Belfast, 1994), 93–4.Google Scholar
  53. 49.
    Robert Kincaid, The Wilderness Road (Middlesboro, KY, 1973) 70–73.Google Scholar
  54. 50.
    Ibid. 73. The ethnic affiliations of the four companions were determined by the surnames (Cooley, Holden, Mooney, and Stuart). See Edward MacLysaght, The Surnames of Ireland (Dublin, 1991), 57, 159, 221, 279.Google Scholar
  55. 51.
    Kincaid, Wilderness Road, 113-15. Logan and Richard Callaway became convinced that Daniel Boone was guilty of conspiring with the British and Shawnee against the white settlers in Kentucky. See Faragher, Daniel Boone, 199.Google Scholar
  56. 52.
    The brothers’ names were Charles, Richard, and Henry Skaggs. See Kincaid, Wilderness Road, 113.Google Scholar
  57. 53.
    Ibid. 114.Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    Ibid. 113.Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    Daniel Boone, in Faragher, Daniel Boone, 311.Google Scholar
  60. 56.
    Ibid. For unknown reasons, Faragher seems to believe Boone was insincere in making this comment.Google Scholar
  61. 57.
    Daniel Boone, Daniel Boone: His Own Story (originally published in 1784 by John Filson) (Bedford, MA, 1995), 4.Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    Daniel Boone, in Faragher, Daniel Boone, 84.Google Scholar
  63. 59.
    William Row cited in Blair, The Life of Mr. Robert Blair, 145.Google Scholar
  64. 60.
    David Goldfield et al, The American Journey: A History of the United States (Upper Saddle River, 2006), 267.Google Scholar
  65. 61.
    Quoted in Faragher, Daniel Boone, 70.Google Scholar
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  67. 63.
    Boone, His Own Story, 1–2. It is true that Filson edited the archaic language that Boone would have used, but Boone was quite able to read. He signed an affidavit endorsing the work as authentically his thoughts. See Faragher, Daniel Boone, 7.Google Scholar
  68. 64.
    John S. Macintosh, cited in a flyer published by The Scotch-Irish Society of the United States of America, P.O. Box 181, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010. See also Vann, South’s Celtic Heritage, 85.Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    This is significant when one considers that the United States Census Bureau divides the country into four regions (South, East, Midwest, and West). The East and Midwest include northern states.Google Scholar
  70. 66.
    J. Proctor Knott, An Address: Delivered before the Scotch-Irish Society of America (Cincinnati, 1889).Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Webb, Born Fighting, 289.Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    For a description of this social grouping, see Vann, ‘Presbyterian Social Ties and Mobility’, 227-54.Google Scholar
  73. 69.
    Kennedy, Scots-Irish in the Hills of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    Directory of the Southern Baptist-related Colleges and Schools 2006 (Nashville, 2006). It should be pointed out that the Association of Southern Baptist Colleges and Universities supports 53 institutions scattered across eighteen states. Forty-eight of them are located in Missouri, Oklahoma and in other southern states.Google Scholar
  75. 71.
    Phillip W. Steele and Steve Cottrell, Civil War in the Ozarks (Gretna, La, 1993).Google Scholar
  76. 72.
    For an excellent discussion on this topic see, William L. Shea and Earl J. Hess, Pea Ridge: Civil War Campaign in the West (Chapel Hill, 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kennedy, Scots-Irish in the Hills of Tennessee, 59.Google Scholar
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    Fischer, Albion’s Seed, 854–89.Google Scholar
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    Fischer, Albion’s Seed, 888.Google Scholar
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    Vann, Rediscovering the South’s Celtic Heritage, 88.Google Scholar
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    Richard Franklin Bensel, Sectionalism and American Political Development, 1880-1980 (Madison, 1984). See also Fischer, Albion’s Seed, 865.Google Scholar
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    William J. McGeveran Jr., Ed., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2006 (New York, 2006), 615–16.Google Scholar
  86. 82.
    Ibid. 612-13.Google Scholar
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    Goldfield et al, The American Journey, 666.Google Scholar
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    McGeveran, World Almanac, 630-31.Google Scholar
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    Ibid. 612-13.Google Scholar
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  93. 89.
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    Merriam Webster’s Geographical Dictionary Third Ed. (Springfield, MA, 1997), 58.Google Scholar
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    Vann, Rediscovering the South’s Celtic Heritage, 17-23. For British identity data, see Sarah Womack, ‘Majority Do not Feel British’, The Daily Telegraph (Belfast, December 18, 2002).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Vann
    • 1
  1. 1.Lincoln Memorial UniversityUSA

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