Advertisement

Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 211–240 | Cite as

Franklin Roosevelt and the Runciman Visit to Washington in 1937: Informal Diplomacy and Anglo-American Relations in the Era of Munich

  • Tony McCulloch
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    The most detauled account of the Runciman Mission of 1938 is Paul Vysny, The Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938: Prelude to Munich, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    See also Tony McCulloch ‘Franklin Roosevelt and the Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938: A New Perspective on Anglo-American Relations in the Era of Appeasement’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 1.2 (Autumn 2003).Google Scholar
  3. 1b.
    Vaughan Baker, ‘Selective Inattention: The Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938’, East European Quarterly, 24.4 (January, 1991). No published biography of Runciman exists although the present author is currently writing one based on the Runciman of Doxford Papers which are maunly housed at Newcastle University. The author wishes to thank the present Lord Runciman for permission to quote from these papers.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    For Runciman’s political career see Martin Pugh, ‘Walter Runciman’, Dictionary of NationalBiography; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, Volume 48, pp. 130–133Google Scholar
  5. 2a.
    J. Wallace, ‘The political career of Walter Runciman, First Viscount Runciman of Doxford (1870–1949)’, Ph.D dissertation, Newcastle University, 1994Google Scholar
  6. 2b.
    Vysny, Runciman Mission, pp. 80–92.Google Scholar
  7. 3.
    Charlie Whitham, ‘Seeing the Wood for the Trees: The British Foreign Office and the Anglo-American Trade Agreement of 1938’, Twentieth Century British History, 16,1 (2005), pp. 29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 3a.
    Ian Drummond and Norman Hillmer, Negotiating Freer Trade: The United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and the Trade Agreements of 1938, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, 1989Google Scholar
  9. 3b.
    Benjamin M. Rowland, Commercial Conflict and Foreign Policy: A Study in Anglo-American Relations, 1932–1938, Garland Publishing, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  10. 3c.
    Ian Drummond, British Economic Policy and the Empire, 1919–1939, Allen and Unwin, London, 1972Google Scholar
  11. 3d.
    Richard Kottman, Reciprocity and the North Atlantic Triangle, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1968Google Scholar
  12. 3e.
    Carl Kreider, The Anglo-American Trade Agreement: A Study of British and American Commercial Policies, 1934–1939, Princeton University Press. Princeton, 1943.Google Scholar
  13. 4.
    David Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, 1937–41: A Study in Competitive Cooperation, Europa Publications Ltd, London, 1981Google Scholar
  14. 4a.
    C.A. MacDonald, The United States and British Appeasement, 1936–1939, Macmillan, London, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 4b.
    W.R. Rock, Chamberlaun and Roosevelt: British Foreign Policy and the United States, 1937–1940, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1988Google Scholar
  16. 4c.
    William F. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, The Challenge to Isolation, 1937–40, Harper, New York, 1952Google Scholar
  17. 4d.
    James R. Leutze, Bargauning for Supremacy-Anglo-American Naval Collaboration, 1937–1941, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 5.
    Greg Kennedy, Anglo-American Strategic Relations and the Far East, 1933–1939, Frank Cass, London, 2002Google Scholar
  19. 5a.
    B.J.C. McKercher, Transition of Power: Britaun’s Loss of Global Pre-eminence to the United States 1930–1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 5b.
    P. Shen, The Age of Appeasement — The Evolution of British Foreign Policy in the 1930s, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 1999Google Scholar
  21. 5c.
    R.A.C Parker, Chamberlaun and Appeasement: British Policy and the Coming of the Second World War, Macmillan, London, 1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 5d.
    Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945, Oxford University Press, New York, revised edition 1995.Google Scholar
  23. 6.
    D. Cameron Watt, Succeeding John Bull: America in Britaun’s Place 1900–1975, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 6a.
    see also Tony McCulloch, ‘Anglo- American Economic Diplomacy and the European Crisis, 1933–39’, D.Phil. thesis, Oxford University, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 7.
    R.A. Harrison, ‘The Runciman Visit to Washington in January 1937: Presidential Diplomacy and the Non-Commercial Implications of Anglo-American Trade Negotiations’, Canadian Historical Review, 19 (1984), pp. 217–239.Google Scholar
  26. 7a.
    R.A. Harrison, ‘A Presidential Drmarche: Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Personal Diplomacy and Great Britaun, 1936–1937’, Diplomatic History, 5, 3 (Summer 1981), pp. 245–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 8.
    For example, see Parker, Chamberlaun and Appeasement, pp. 74, 301 and 304–305Google Scholar
  28. 8a.
    Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, pp.46–47, 51 and 86.Google Scholar
  29. 9.
    See Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp. 26–27 and 33.Google Scholar
  30. 10.
    Vysny, Runciman Mission, pp. 82–87; Pugh, DNB, Wo1 48, pp. 130–132.Google Scholar
  31. 11.
    Vysny, Runciman Mission, pp.87–88; Pugh, DNB, Vol 48, pp. 130–132Google Scholar
  32. 11a.
    see also David Marquand, Ramsay McDonald, Metro Books, London, 1997.Google Scholar
  33. 12.
    For Smoot-Hawley tariff act see David Kennedy, Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999, pp. 49–50.Google Scholar
  34. 13.
    Drummond and Hillmer, Negotiating Freer Trade; Drummond, British Economic Policy; Kottman, Reciprocity.Google Scholar
  35. 14.
    See Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  36. 15.
    Papers of Arthur Murray, Lord Elibank, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. For Murray’s views and career before 1933 see Boxes 8805–8808.Google Scholar
  37. 15a.
    See also Arthur Murray, ‘Franklin Roosevelt: Friend of Britaun’, Contemporary Review, 187 (1955)Google Scholar
  38. 15a.
    Arthur Murray, At Close Quarters: A Sidelight on Anglo-American Diplomatic Relations, Murray, London, 1946.Google Scholar
  39. 16.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, Roosevelt to Murray, 30 June 1931.Google Scholar
  40. 17.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, Murray telegram to Roosevelt, 2 July 1932; Roosevelt to Murray, September 1932; Murray to Roosevelt, 13 February 1933.Google Scholar
  41. 18.
    Runciman Papers, Box 259, Arthur J. Cummings to Runciman, 9 September 1932.Google Scholar
  42. 19.
    Runciman papers, Box 259, memo of conversation with Norman Davis, 31 March 1933.Google Scholar
  43. 20.
    Cabinet Papers, CAB 23, Volume 73, 63(32) Appendix: meeting of Cabinet ministers at House of Commons, 28 November 1932, pp. 56–70.Google Scholar
  44. 21.
    Cabinet papers, CAB 23, Vol. 76, 39(33)2, 9 June 1933, Addendum, pp.172–186.Google Scholar
  45. 22.
    See Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, pp. 155–156; Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp.44–57; Herbert Feis, 1933: Characters in Crisis, Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1966.Google Scholar
  46. 23.
    For the Johnson Act see Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp 73–74Google Scholar
  47. 23a.
    for war debts in general see Robert Sell Britaun, the US and the war debt problem, 1917–41: an unspecial relationship, Routledge, London, 2006.Google Scholar
  48. 24.
    Papers of the Marquess of Lothian, Scottish Record Office, Edinburgh, record of conversation with Roosevelt, 11 October 1934, GD40/17, Volume 285; Harrison, PD, p. 247.Google Scholar
  49. 24a.
    for Lothian see David Reynolds, Lothian and Anglo-American Relations, 1939–1940, The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1983Google Scholar
  50. 24b.
    David P. Billington, Lothian: Philip Kerr and the Quest for World Order, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 2006.Google Scholar
  51. 25.
    Phillips Diary, Box 5, 11 October 1934Google Scholar
  52. 26.
    Phillips Diary, Box 5, 15 October 1934Google Scholar
  53. 27.
    Cordell Hull, Memoirs, Vol. One, p.384Google Scholar
  54. 27a.
    William Phillips Papers, Harvard University Library, Diary, Box 7, 10 June 1935.Google Scholar
  55. 28.
    FO 371, 18770, A6366/3169/45, minute by P. Gore-Booth, 10 July 1935.Google Scholar
  56. 29.
    Shen, Age of Appeasement, pp.59–58; Parker, Chamberlaun and Appeasement, pp.34–57.Google Scholar
  57. 30.
    Samuel Rosenman (ed.), The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Random House, New York, 1938, Vol. 5, pp.8–18. Annual message to Congress, 3 January 1936.Google Scholar
  58. 31.
    See Sir Arthur Willert, The Road to Safety: A Study in Anglo-American Relations, Derek Verschoyle Limited, London, 1952 and Washington and Other Memories, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1972, pp. 197–204 and 215–216.Google Scholar
  59. 32.
    Arthur Schatz, ‘The Anglo-American Trade Agreement and Cordell Hull’s Search for Peace, 1936–1938’, Journal of American History, 58 (1970), pp. 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 33.
    FO 371, 19828, A3150/170145, Sir A. Willert to R. Craugie, 9 April 1936.Google Scholar
  61. 34.
    For Tweedsmuir see Janet Smith, John Buchan: A Biography, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1985Google Scholar
  62. 34a.
    Andrew Lownie, John Buchan: The Presbyterian Cavalier, David R. Godine Publishing, Boston, 2003Google Scholar
  63. 35.
    C. P. Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict, Volume 2: 1921–1948, The Mackenzie King Era, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1981, pp. 224–231; Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 79, 31 July 1936.Google Scholar
  64. 36.
    Stacey, The Mackenzie King Era, pp. 169–179; Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 78, 15 November 1935.Google Scholar
  65. 37.
    Tony McCulloch, ‘The Key Log in the Jam: Mackenzie King, the North Atlantic Triangle and the Anglo-American Rapprochement of 1935–39’, London Journal of Canadian Studies, Volume 20, 2004–05, pp. 45–68.Google Scholar
  66. 38.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, William Phillips to Murray, 25 May 1936.Google Scholar
  67. 39.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, Roosevelt to Runciman, 4 May 1936.Google Scholar
  68. 40.
    Runciman papers, Box 284, Runciman to Roosevelt, 30 June 1936Google Scholar
  69. 40a.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, Murray to Roosevelt, 5 July 1936.Google Scholar
  70. 41.
    FO 371, 19829, A8793/170/45: Lindsay tel. 289, 5 November 1936.Google Scholar
  71. 42.
    FO 371, 19827, A8860/103/45: minutes by Sir R. Craugie, 11 November and 13 November 1936; see also minutes by Sir R. Vansittart, 14 November, Lord Cranbourne, 1 December, Sir A. Eden, 12 November 1936.Google Scholar
  72. 43.
    Roosevelt Papers, Hyde Park, New York. PSF file, Box 43, Bullitt to Roosevelt, 8 November 1936.Google Scholar
  73. 44.
    Murray papers, Box 8808, Roosevelt to Murray, 25 December 1936; note of telephone conversation between Murray and Runciman, 26 December 1936; Murray to Roosevelt, 26 December 1936.Google Scholar
  74. 45.
    Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt — A Rendezvous with Destiny, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1990, pp. 221–226Google Scholar
  75. 46.
    Harrison, ‘Runciman Visit’; Harrison, ‘Presidential Démarche’.Google Scholar
  76. 47.
    State Department file 033.4111/13: memo on ‘Right Honorable Walter Runciman’, 22 January 1937.Google Scholar
  77. 48.
    Runciman Papers, Box 250, letter from Walter Runciman to his constituents, 29 September 1932.Google Scholar
  78. 49.
    For the Roca-Runciman agreement see Rowland, Commercial Conflict and Foreign Policy, pp. 68–93.Google Scholar
  79. 50.
    FO 371, 19836, A84495/3173145, minute by Sir R. Vansittart, 11 November 1936; minute by A. Eden, 12 November 1936.Google Scholar
  80. 51.
    FO 371, 20658, A446/228/45, Lindsay tel. 10, 18 January 1937.Google Scholar
  81. 52.
    FO 371, 20658, A4461228145, minute by G. Jebb, 21 January 1937.Google Scholar
  82. 53.
    FO 371, 19834, A9627/890145, memo by J. Troutbeck, 24 November 1936.Google Scholar
  83. 54.
    FO 371, 20656, A/93145, memo, 5 January 1937, of issues to be raused between Eden and Runciman.Google Scholar
  84. 55.
    FO 371, 20656, A147193/45, minute by J. Troutbeck, 5 January 1936.Google Scholar
  85. 56.
    PREM 1, Volume 291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937. Memorandum ‘Conversations with President Roosevelt and Mr Hull’. Also included in FO371, 20656, A 1059/93/45. The following account of Runciman’s discussions is based largely on this document, henceforth cited as ‘Runciman memo’. See also Harrison, ‘Runciman Visit’; Harrison, ‘Presidential D6marche’.Google Scholar
  86. 47.
    State Department file 033., Kennedy; Hull, Memoirs. Vol. One, pp. 524–526; Kottman, Reciprocity, pp. 159–160.Google Scholar
  87. 57.
    Runciman memo, pp. 4 and 7. s8 Runciman memo, pp.l–2.Google Scholar
  88. 59.
    Runciman memo, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  89. 60.
    Runciman memo, pp.6–7.Google Scholar
  90. 61.
    Runciman memo, p. 5.Google Scholar
  91. 62.
    Runciman memo, p. 5.Google Scholar
  92. 63.
    PREM 11291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937.Google Scholar
  93. 63a.
    For detauls of the Currency Agreement see John Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries, Vol. One, Years of Crisis, 1928–38, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1959.Google Scholar
  94. 64.
    Runciman memo, p. 6.Google Scholar
  95. 65.
    FO 371, 20651, A666/38/45, Lindsay tel. 26, 26 January 1937; A1155/38/45: FO tel.52, 18 February 1937.Google Scholar
  96. 66.
    Runciman memo, pp. 3–4.Google Scholar
  97. 67.
    Runciman memo, pp. 7–8.Google Scholar
  98. 68.
    FO371,20656, A668/93/45: Lindsay tel. 24, 26 January 1937. From Runciman for Prime Minister, Chancellor of Exchequer and Foreign Secretary.Google Scholar
  99. 69.
    Runciman memo, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  100. 70.
    Runciman memo, p. 9.Google Scholar
  101. 71.
    Runciman memo, p.9.Google Scholar
  102. 72.
    Hull, Memoirs, Vol. One, pp. 524–525; Adolf Berle papers, Roosevelt Library, Diary, Box 210, 15 February 1937.Google Scholar
  103. 73.
    Thomas Jones, A Diary with Letters, 1931–1950, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1954, p.330.Google Scholar
  104. 74.
    FO 371, 20653, A1009/55/45: Lindsay to Craugie, 22 January 1937 and minute by A. Holman (12 February), J. Troutbeck (13 February) and Sir R. Craugie (15 February).Google Scholar
  105. 75.
    Neville Chamberlaun papers, Birmingham University Library, NC 18/1/993, Neville Chamberlaun to Hilda Chamberlaun, 6 February 1937.Google Scholar
  106. 76.
    PREM 1/291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937.Google Scholar
  107. 77.
    PREM 1/291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937.Google Scholar
  108. 78.
    FO 371, 20659, A2964/228/45, Minutes of Cabinet Trade and Agriculture Committee, 12 April, 1937.Google Scholar
  109. 79.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 81, 5 and 6 March 1937.Google Scholar
  110. 79a.
    See also Hull, Memoirs, Vol. One, pp. 526–529.Google Scholar
  111. 80.
    FO 371, 20651, A1925/38/45: Eden to Lindsay, FO desp. 271, 20 March 1937.Google Scholar
  112. 81.
    FO 371, 20666, A3191/448/45: Lindsay tel. 117, 30 April 1937.Google Scholar
  113. 81a.
    See also Robert Divine, Illusion of Neutrality, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962, pp. 162–199Google Scholar
  114. 81b.
    Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp. 139–140.Google Scholar
  115. 82.
    FO 371, 20651, A2378/38/45: Lindsay desp. 247, 22 March 1937.Google Scholar
  116. 83.
    FO 371, 20651, A2378/38/45: Lindsay desp. 247, 22 March 1937.Google Scholar
  117. 84.
    Runciman papers, Box 285, Chamberlaun to Runciman, 10 May 1937; Runciman to Chamberlaun, 7 May 1937; Runciman to an “American observer” (unnamed), 21 June 1937Google Scholar
  118. 85.
    Runciman papers, Box 285, Vansittart to Runciman, 29 May 1937.Google Scholar
  119. 86.
    Murray papers, Box 8809, Roosevelt to Murray, 17 June 1937.Google Scholar
  120. 87.
    For Chamberlaun and Anglo-American relations in 1937–38 see Reynolds, Creation of Anglo-American Alliance; Rock, Chamberlaun and Roosevelt; MacDonald, US and British Appeasement. Google Scholar
  121. 88.
    Runciman to Roosevelt, 28 July 1938 (PSF: Great Britaun: AS), D. B. Schewe, FDR and Foreign Affaurs, Garland, New York, 1979, Vol. 6, May 1938-August 1938, No 1208.Google Scholar
  122. 89.
    Runciman Papers, Box 284, Murray to Runciman, 27 July 1938.Google Scholar
  123. 90.
    Tony McCulloch, “Franklin Roosevelt and the Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938: a new perspective on Anglo-American relations in the era of appeasement”, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, Vol. 1.2, Autumn 2003Google Scholar
  124. 91.
    FO 371, 21730, C7757/1941/18. FO minute by Halifax, 29 July 1938.Google Scholar
  125. 92.
    See Runciman Papers, Box 290, for appointment as Lord PresidentGoogle Scholar
  126. 93.
    Runciman Papers, Box 284, Murray to Runciman, 24 October 1938.Google Scholar
  127. 94.
    Runciman Papers, Box 284, Murray to Runciman, 1 January 1939.Google Scholar
  128. 95.
    Murray Papers, Box 8809, Note of conversation between Roosevelt and Murray, 23 October 1938.Google Scholar
  129. 96.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 86, 17 November 1938.Google Scholar
  130. 97.
    Murray Papers, Box 8809, Note of certaun conversations between Roosevelt and Murray, 16–24 October 1938.Google Scholar
  131. 98.
    Murray Papers, Box 8809, Murray to Halifax, 22 October 1938.Google Scholar
  132. 99.
    Murray Papers, Box 8809, Murray to Halifax, 20 November 1938; Halifax to Murray, 22 November 1938; PREM 1/367, note by Halifax in pencil, undated (30 November 1938).Google Scholar
  133. 100.
    PREM 1/367, Note of certaun conversations between Roosevelt and Murray, 16–24 October 1938, with comment by Chamberlaun, 14 December 1938.Google Scholar
  134. 101.
    Murray Papers, Box 8809, Murray to Roosevelt, 15 December 1938.Google Scholar
  135. 102.
    PREM 1/291, Mackenzie King to Chamberlaun, 10 October 1938.Google Scholar
  136. 103.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 86, 17 November 1938.Google Scholar
  137. 104.
    CAB 23, Vol. 96, 49(38)9, 19 October 1938, pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
  138. 105.
    Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries, Vol. One, p. 524.Google Scholar
  139. 106.
    Harold L. Ickes, The Secret Diary of Harold lckes, 3 volumes, New York, 1953–55. Vol. Two, p. 568.Google Scholar
  140. 107.
    New York Times, 13 December 1938.Google Scholar
  141. 108.
    FO 371, 21509, A8917/1/45: text of commentary by Raymond Gram Swing, 19 November 1939.Google Scholar
  142. 109.
    New York Times, 10 December 1938.Google Scholar
  143. 110.
    Stanley Baldwin Papers, Cambridge University Library, Vol. 124, Eden to Baldwin, 19 December 1938.Google Scholar
  144. 111.
    See FO 371, 21548, A9029/9029/45 for Eden visit to USA.Google Scholar
  145. 112.
    Rosenman (ed), Roosevelt Public Papers, Vol. 8, Address to Congress, 4 January 1939, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  146. 113.
    New York Times, 5 January 1939.Google Scholar
  147. 114.
    The Times, 6 January 1939Google Scholar
  148. 115.
    FO 371, 22812, A1 I4/98/45: minute by J. V. Perowne, 6 January 1939.Google Scholar
  149. 116.
    FO 371, 22812, A339/98/45: Mallet tel. 20, 12 January 1939.Google Scholar
  150. 117.
    Reynolds, Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, pp.46–47; Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt, pp. 312–313.Google Scholar
  151. 118.
    FO 371, 22829, A2907/1292/45, report of conversations between Sir Arthur Willert and President Roosevelt, 25–26 March 1939.Google Scholar
  152. 119.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol.86, 31 March 1939.Google Scholar
  153. 120.
    FO 371, 22829, A2693/1292/45, Lindsay tel. 4 April 1939Google Scholar
  154. 121.
    FO 371, 22829, A2439/1292/45, article by Walter Lippmann, 23 March 1939.Google Scholar
  155. 122.
    For Royal Visit of 1939 see Peter Bell, ‘The Foreign Office and the Royal Visit to America of 1939: Courting the United States in an era of isolationism’, Journal of Contemporary History, 37,4 (2002)Google Scholar
  156. 122a.
    David Reynolds, ‘FDR’s Foreign Policy and the British Royal Visit to the USA, 1939’, Historian, 45 (1983), pp. 461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 122b.
    Benjamin D. Rhodes, ‘The British Royal Visit of 1939 and the “Psychological Approach” to the United States’, Diplomatic History, 2 (1978), pp. 197–211. Also FO 371, Vols 22799–22801, file 27/45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 123.
    Elliott Roosevelt (ed.), The Roosevelt Letters, Vol. 3, 1928–1945, Harrap, London, 1952. Roosevelt to George VI, 25 August 1939, pp. 239–240.Google Scholar
  159. 124.
    The most detauled account of the Royal Visit is Gordon Young, Voyage of State: Canada and the USA, 1939, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1939.Google Scholar
  160. 125.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 86, 10 June 1939.Google Scholar
  161. 126.
    See Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp. 187–192.Google Scholar
  162. 127.
    FO 371, 22813, A1378198/45: memo on ‘USA National Defence’ by Mr. Graham Haldane, February 1939.Google Scholar
  163. 128.
    FO 371, 23905, W12351/9808/49: memorandum by Lord Riverdale on his mission to Washington, New York and Ottawa, August 1939.Google Scholar
  164. 129.
    CAB 23, Vol. 100, 45(39)3, 28 August 1939, pp. 415–416.Google Scholar
  165. 130.
    Runciman Papers, Box 298 gives detauls of Runciman’s ill-health and absence from the Cabinet in 1939.Google Scholar
  166. 131.
    For the background to Lend-Lease see Warren Kimball, The Most UnsordidAct: Lend-Lease, 1939–1941, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1969.Google Scholar
  167. 132.
    See Dallek, FDR and American Foreign Policy, pp. 200–205.Google Scholar
  168. 133.
    Mackenzie King Diary, Vol. 86, 10 June 1939.Google Scholar
  169. 134.
    F. Lowenheim, H. Langley and M. Jones (eds), Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence, Barrie and Jenkins, London, 1975, p. 89.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony McCulloch
    • 1
  1. 1.Canterbury Christ Church UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations