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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 55–70 | Cite as

The Development of the European Security and Defence Policy and Its Implications for Nato: Cooperation and Competition

  • Udo Diedrichs
Part II: The Other Option: An Autonomous Europe

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Notes

  1. 1.
    See Anne Deighton, ‘The European Security and Defence Policy’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 40, 4 (2002), p. 720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    British-French Summit 1998, ‘Joint Declaration, St. Malo, December 3–4, 1998’, in Maartje Rutten (ed.), From St. Malo to Nice, European Defence: Core Documents, Paris, Institute for Security Studies of the Western European Union, Chaillot Paper 47 (2001), pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See Jolyon Howorth, ‘European defence and the Changing Politics of the European Union: Hanging Together or Hanging Separately?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 39, 4 (2001), pp. 765–789; Deighton, ‘The European Security and Defence Policy’.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Elfriede Regelsberger, ‘Die Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik nach “Nizza” - begrenzter Reformeifer und außervertragliche Dynamik’, in Mathias Jopp, Barbara Lippert und Heinrich Schneider (eds.), Das Vertragswerk von Nizza und die Zukunft der Europäischen Union, Berlin, 2001, pp. 112–122.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ibid; see also Mathias Jopp, Jan Reckmann and Elfriede Regelsberger, ‘Ansatzpunkte und Optionen zur institutionellen Weiterentwicklung von GASP und ESVP’, Integration, 3 (2002), pp. 230–237.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    See Udo Diedrichs and Mathias Jopp, ‘Flexibility in ESDP: From the Convention to the IGC and Beyond’, CFSP Forum, 2 (2004), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    In the following, the Constitutional Treaty as signed by the Rome summit on October 29, 2004 will be taken as a reference. See the consolidated version of the draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, CIG 87/2/04, Brussels, October 29, 2004; and the consolidated version of the protocols and declarations annexed to the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, CIG 87/2/04 ADD 1 REV 1, and CIG 87/2/04 ADD 2 REV 2, Brussels October 29, 2004.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Art. 1–41 (1) of the Constitutional Treaty.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See Hill, Christopher, ‘A Foreign Minister without a Foreign Ministry - or with Too Many?’, CFSP Forum, 1 (2003).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Udo Diedrichs and Mathias Jopp, ‘Flexibility in the ESDP: From the Convention to the IGC and Beyond’.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See Elfriede Regelsberger, ‘Die Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik’.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See Wolfgang Wessels, ‘Eine institutionelle Architektur für eine globale (Zivil-) Macht? Die Artikel zur Gemeinsamen Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik des Vertrags über eine Verfassung für Europa’, Zeitschrift für Staats- und Europawissenschaften, 3 (2003), p. 418–420; Christopher Hill, ‘A Foreign Minister without a Foreign Ministry’.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Petersberg tasks were expanded by Art. III-309 of the Constitutional Treaty, including henceforth also joint disarmament operations, military advice and assistance tasks, conflict prevention and post-conflict stabilization; a reference to the fight against terrorism, to which these tasks may contribute, was also added.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See Christopher Hill, ‘A Foreign Minister without a Foreign Ministry’, p. 2.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See Art. 1–41 (6) and Art. III-312 of the Constitutional Treaty as well as Protocol (No. 23) on permanent, structured cooperation annexed to the Constitutional Treaty, op. cit (note 20).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    See Financial Times, November 13, 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    See Javier Solana, ‘Gemeinsame Außen-, Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik der erweiterten EU’, Europäische Sicherheit, 6 (2004).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    See Udo Diedrichs and Mathias Jopp, ‘Flexibility in the ESDP: From the Convention to the IGC and Beyond’, op.cit.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    See Gerrard Quille, ‘“Battle Groups” to strengthen EU Military Crisis management?’, ISIS European Security Review, April 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    See Julian Lindley-French, ‘Combined and Joint? The Development of a Security and Operational Doctrine for the European Union’, in Erich Reiter, Reinhard Rummel and Peter Schmidt (eds.), Europas ferne Streitmacht, Chancen und Schwierigkeiten der Europäischen Union beim Aufbau der ESVP, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn, Forschungen zur Sicherheitspolitik, 6 (2002), pp. 86–118Google Scholar
  21. 20a.
    Manfred Baumgartner, ‘Eine Streitmacht für mancherlei Zwecke - Können die Europäer das Headline Goal erfüllen?’, in Erich Reiter, Reinhard Rummel and Peter Schmidt (eds.), Europas ferne Streitmacht, Chancen und Schwierigkeiten der Europäischen Union beim Aufbau der ESVP, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn, Forschungen zur Sicherheitspolitik, 6 (2002), pp. 11–42Google Scholar
  22. 20b.
    Huber, Reiner K., ‘Standards und Konvergenzkriterien für die Weiterentwicklung der europäischen Streitkräfte’, Europäische Sicherheit, 51, 4 (2002), pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    See Declaration on EU Military Capabilities by the Council of the European Union, May 19–20, 2003, Council Document 9379/03 (Presse 138).Google Scholar
  24. 22.
    Council of the European Union, Headline Goal 2010, approved by General Affairs and External relations Council on May 17, 2004 endorsed by the European Council June 17 and 18, 2004, p. 13.Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    See Gerrard Quille, ‘“Battle Groups’ to strengthen EU Military Crisis management?’.Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    See Council Joint Action 2004/551/CFSP of July 12, 2004 on the establishment of the European Defence Agency, OJ L 245, July 17, 2004.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
  28. 26.
    See Council of the European Union, Presidency Report on European Security and Defence Policy, Brussels, June 22, 2002, 10160/02 REV 2.Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    See Yves Boyer, ‘France and the European Security Defence Policy: A Leadership Role Among Equals’, in Ehrhart, Hans-Georg (ed.), Die Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik. Positionen, Perzeptionen, Probleme, Perspektiven, Baden-Baden, NomosGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Regelsberger, ‘Die Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik nach “Nizza”’.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    See Gunilla Herolf and Bo Huldt, “The European Union and the Inclusion of a Collective Defence Clause’, in Erich Reiter, Reinhard Rummel and Peter Schmidt (eds.), Europas ferne Streitmacht, Chancen und Schwierigkeiten der Europäischen Union beim Aufbau der ESVP, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn, Forschungen zur Sicherheitspolitik, 6 (2002), pp. 60–85.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    See Sten Rynning, ‘A European Strategie Culture? The ESDP and 21st Century Geopolitics’, paper presented at the ECPR workshop no. 12, Edinburgh, March 28 to April 2, 2003, p. 3; Jopp, ‘Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik’, pp. 217–226.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Per M. Martinsen, ‘The European Security and Defence policy (ESDP) _ a Strategic culture in the Making?’, paper presented at the ECPR conference Section 17, Marburg, September 18–21, 2003; Sten Rynning, ‘A European Strategic Culture?’; Howorth, ‘European defence and the Changing Politics of the European Union’, p. 784.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    See ‘The European Security Strategy, A Secure Europe in a Better World’, Brussels, December 12, 2003.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    See Jocelyn Mawdsley and Gerrard Quille, (with contributions from Malcolm Chalmers, Timothy Garden, Andrea Grazioso, Roland Kästner, Otfried Nassauer, Stephen Pullinger, Herbert Wulf), ‘The EU Security Strategy: A New Framework for ESDP and Equipping the EU Rapid Reaction Force’, ISIS Europe, ISIS Report, December 2003; Quille, ‘“Battle Groups” to strengthen EU Military Crisis management?’.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Mawdsley and Quille, ‘The EU Security Strategy: A New Framework for ESDP’.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    ‘European Security Strategy 2003’, p. 11.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    See Robert Hunter, ‘The US and the European Union: Bridging the Strategic Gap?’, The International Spectator, Vol. XXXIX, 1 (2004), p. 40.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Christopher Hill, ‘Renationalizing or Regrouping? EU Foreign Policy Since September 11, 2001’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 42, 1 (2003), p. 151.Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    See the Conclusions of the Meeting of the Heads of State and Government of Germany, France, Luxembourg and Belgium on European Defence, Egmont Palace, Brussels, April 29, 2003.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    The label of ‘Tervuren’ was added to the idea of creating a multinational EU headquarters submitted by the heads of state and government of France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in April 2003, being discussed as the prospective location of such headquarters. Soon it became a catchword - mostly used by critics - for the whole concept of establishing autonomous EU capacities for conducting military operations without recourse to NATO.Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    See Webber, Croft, Howorth, Terriff and Krahmann, ‘The governance of European Security’, p. 16.Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    The title of ‘chocolatiers’ was given to the heads of state and government of France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg after their Brussels summit on ESDP in April 2003, hinting at the Belgian art of manufacturing chocolates; the term was used by their critics in an attempt to expose their efforts to ridicule.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    See Council of the European Union, European Defence: NATO/EU Consultation, Planning and Operations, Brussels, December 2003.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
  46. 44.
    See ‘Istanbul Summit Communiqué’, Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council, June 28, 2004.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    The Berlin Plus arrangements ensure the EU access to NATO assets and capabilities for planning and conducting military operations where NATO as a whole is not engaged.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Udo Diedrichs
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CologneGermany

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