Advertisement

Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 214–232 | Cite as

A Transnational Vision for African Colonization: John H.B. Latrobe and the Future of Maryland in Liberia

  • Eugene S. Vansickle
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    John e. Semmes, The Life and Times of John H.B. Latrobe, 1803-1891, (Baltimore: The Norman, Remington Co., 1917), pp. 33–61, 92.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Microfilm Edition of the Papers of the Maryland State Colonization Society [microform]. A Collection of the Maryland Historical Society, (Philadelphia: Rhestoric Publications, Inc., cl970), reel 31, XIII. African Colonization: An Address Delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, President of the American Colonization Society at the Anniversary Meeting of the Massachusetts Colonization Society, May 25, 1853 (Baltimore: John D. Toy, 1853), p. 7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Penelope Campbell, Maryland in Africa: The Maryland State Colonization Society, 1831-1857 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971), p. 4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV Pamphlets (not included in original collection), 3. Proceedings of a Meeting of the Friends of African Colonization... October 17, 1827, p. 5.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia Edited by William Peden, (W W Norton and Company, Inc, 1972), 137–138Google Scholar
  6. 5a.
    Paul Finkelman, ‘Jefferson and Slavery ‘Treason Against the Hopes of the World.” In Jeffersonian Legacies, edited by Peter S. Onuf, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993), p. 196, 208Google Scholar
  7. 5b.
    Matthew T. Mellon, Early American Views on Negro Slavery From the Letters and Papers of the Founders of the Republic (New York: Bergman Publishers, 1969), pp. 101–104Google Scholar
  8. 5c.
    Floyd J. Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863), pp. 3–5; MSCS Papers, reel 16, III. Correspondece Sent, Latrobe Letter Books, John Latrobe to John Russwurm, January 27, 1840.Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    Most of these individuals were African born.Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    The African Repository. Vol. 1, No. 1, (March 1825), (Reprint, New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1967), p. 2; Miller, The Search, 40; Philip J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961), p. 9, pp. 15–17.Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    The African Repository Vol 1, No. 1, (March 1825): pp. 2–3, Vol. 1, No. 2, (April 1825): p. 35; Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, pp. 30–34; See also: Phil Sigler, ‘The Attitudes of Free Blacks Towards Emigration to Liberia.’ (Ph. D. diss., Boston University, 1969).Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    Black Abolitionist Papers, Vol. 3 (The United States, 1830–1846) Edited by C. Peter Ripley, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), pp. 85–87, 98 (hereafter BAP); William Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization Edited by William Loren Katz (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1968), Part 1: pp. 11–12, 42, Part 2: p. 12, 21.Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, pp. 28–29.Google Scholar
  14. 11.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John H. B. Latrobe to Courtland Van Rensellaer, July 10, 1833.Google Scholar
  15. 12.
  16. 13.
    Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (New York: Oxford University, 1970), pp. 79–80Google Scholar
  17. 13a.
    Richard Sewell, Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837–1860 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), p. 20.Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization, p. xi.Google Scholar
  19. 15.
    Foner, Free Soil, pp. 11, 40, 189.Google Scholar
  20. 16.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Constitution, p. 2; Minutes. March 26, 1831; June 28, 1833; John H.B. Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia (Baltimore: John Murphy and Company, 1885), p. 21 (this book, written by Latrobe, was also copied in its entirety into the Microfilm edition of the MSCS Papers, reel 30, XIII. Colonization Pamphlets); reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John H. B. Latrobe to Courtland Van Rensellaer, July 10, 1833; Latrobe to Reverend G. W. Blagden, Oct. 9, 1833; Latrobe to B. B. Wisner, Oct. 10, 1833.Google Scholar
  21. 17.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to Reverend G.W. Blagden, October 9, 1833; reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. 4. An Address delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Maryland State Colonization Society by C. C. Harper, January 23, 1835.Google Scholar
  22. 18.
    Samuel Wilson, Jr., Southern Travels: The Journal of John H. B. Latrobe, 1834 (The Historic New Orleans Collection, 1986), pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  23. 19.
    John E. Semmes, John H. B. Latrobe and His Times, 1803–1891 (Baltimore: The Norman Remington Co., 1917), p. 164.Google Scholar
  24. 20.
    Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, pp. 137–138; Finkelman, ‘Jefferson and Slavery,’ pp. 196, 208; Mellon, Early American Views on Negro Slavery, pp. 101–104.Google Scholar
  25. 21.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. P. 7. Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, of Maryland, At the Anniversary Meeting of the New York State Colonization Society, held in Metropolitan Hall, May 13, 1852 (Baltimore: John D. Toy, 1852), p. 21.Google Scholar
  26. 22.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, Latrobe to Elisha Whittlesey, September 14, 1836; John Latrobe to unidentified, March 15, 1837; Latrobe to Reverend William C. Wyatt, July 15, 1841.Google Scholar
  27. 23.
    Even during the Civil War, Latrobe continued to argue African-Americans would not gain equality and colonization was the only means for them to achieve the independence they desired. The Annual Reports of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States (reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969), vol. 34 (January 21, 1851), p. 56; vol. 37 (January 17, 1854), p. 26; vol. 44 (January 15, 1861), p. 29; vol. 45 (January 20, 1862), p. 23; vol. 47 (January 19, 1864), pp. 21–24.Google Scholar
  28. 24.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. 10. African Colonization An Address delivered by Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, President of the American Colonization Society, at the Anniversary Meeting of the American Colonization Society, January 21, 1862; Mellon, Early American Views, pp. 101–104.Google Scholar
  29. 25.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XIII, Colonization Pamphlets. Colonization of the Free Colored Population of Maryland and of Such Slaves as May Hereafter Become Free. (Baltimore: Published by the Managers Appointed be the State of Maryland, 1832), pp. 3–4; African Colonization: An Address Delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, May 25, 1853, pp. 12–13; David M. Streifford, ‘The American Colonization Society: An Application of Republican Ideology to Early Antebellum Reform.’ In The Journal of Southern History Vol. 45, Issue 2, (May 1979): pp. 202–204.Google Scholar
  30. 26.
    Annual Reports of the ACS, vol. 34 (January 21, 1851), p. 56; vol. 37 (January 17, 1854), p. 26; MSCS Papers, reel 31, XIII, Colonization Pamphlets. Colonization of the Free Colored Population of Maryland, pp. 4; 8; African Colonization: An Address Delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, May 25, 1853, p. 5.Google Scholar
  31. 27.
    JDB Debow, Statistical View of the United States: A Compendium of the Seventh Census (1850) (Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson, 1854), p. 63.Google Scholar
  32. 28.
    The experiences of Frederick Douglass as a ship caulker in Baltimore are a good example of the tensions between blacks and whites. Christopher Phillips, Freedom’s Port: The African-American Community of Baltimore, 1790–1860 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), pp. 10–12, 182.Google Scholar
  33. 29.
    Maryland General Assembly, House of Delegates, ‘Select Committee on the Removal of the Free Colored Population from Charles County’ (Annapolis, MD: s.n., 1844), pp. 5–7.Google Scholar
  34. 30.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XII, Colonization Pamphlets. Colonization of the Free Colored Population of Maryland, 4; 4. An Address C. C. Harper, January 23, 1835; reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to B.B. Wisner, October 10, 1833; John Latrobe to Reverend William C. Wyatt, July 15, 1841.Google Scholar
  35. 31.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. p. 7; Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, pp. 37–38; 8. African Colonization: An Address Delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, pp. 11–12.Google Scholar
  36. 32.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, 1. October 1832–June 1834. Charles C. Harper to the President & Managers of the American Col. Society, Washington, September 20 1833.Google Scholar
  37. 33.
    BAP, vol. 3, pp. 76, 98, 102–104; MSCS Papers, reel 1, II, Correspondence Received. George R. McGill to John Latrobe, July 12, 1832; John Russwurm to John Latrobe, July 18, 1832; Tom Shick, ‘A Quantitative Analysis of Liberian Colonization from 1820 to 1843 With Special Reference to Mortality.’ In Journal of African History, XII, I (1971), pp. 48–52.Google Scholar
  38. 34.
    Annual Reports of the ACS, vol. 11, (January 1828), p. 8; Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, May 13, 1853, pp. 38–44.Google Scholar
  39. 35.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. (May 4, 1831).Google Scholar
  40. 36.
    Campbell, Maryland in Africa, pp. 28–29.Google Scholar
  41. 37.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’ Books, John Latrobe to Dr. James Hall, October 11, 1832.Google Scholar
  42. 38.
    Ibid., reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to Dr. James Hall, October 11, 1832; John Latrobe to George R. McGill, October 12, 1832; John Latrobe to BB Thatcher, July 23, 1833; John Latrobe to Reverend John Hersey, September 1833; I. Fonerden, FH Smith, WR Stuart, to unidentified, March 25, 1837.Google Scholar
  43. 39.
    MSCS Papers, Vol. 1, reel I, Minutes. June 28, 1833, October 2, 1833; reel 3, II, Correspondence Received, John Russwurm to John Latrobe, February 12, 1837; reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to Courtland Van Rensellaer, July 10, 1833; John Latrobe to Reverend John Hersey, September 1833; John Latrobe to John Russwurm, June 1830; Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, 22; reel 16, III. Correspondence Sent, John Latrobe to Robert S. Finley, Jr., March 17, 1837.Google Scholar
  44. 40.
    The legislature set up this state fund for the Board of Managers of the Colonization society to draw $10,000 annually for twenty years. African Repository, Vol. 7 (November 1831): pp. 25–27; MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. October 12, 1831, March 24, 1832; Campbell, Maryland in Africa, pp. 35–36.Google Scholar
  45. 41.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. April 30, 1833, September 9, 1833; reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to Dr. James Hall, October 11, 1832; John Latrobe to George R. McGill, October 10, 1832.Google Scholar
  46. 42.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes, October 4, 1832.Google Scholar
  47. 43.
    Latrobe justified a settlement at Cape Palmas on the basis that the current colony was incapable of receiving more colonists if its population or emigration from the United States increased. He also believed that the area around Cape Palmas was a commercial hub, and the ACS should obtain it before a foreign power did so. MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. January 11, 1833; African Repository Vol. 11, Minutes of the Eleventh Annual Meeting, p. 8.Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. April 11, 1833.Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    The colonists traded fruit, spices, and palm oil to name a few items. Certainly, trade or bartering was the dominant economic system in the colony. African Repository (March, 1825):21–22, 27; (April, 1825); p. 44.Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    Sigler, ‘Attitudes of Free Blacks,’ chapter two.Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. April, 11, 1833; June 28, 1833; October 2, 1833; Campbell, Maryland in Africa, pp. 50–51.Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I, Minutes. October 9, 1833.Google Scholar
  53. 49.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to BB Wisner, October 10, 1833; John Latrobe to Courtland Van Rensellaer, July 10, 1833; reel 31, XIII, Colonization Pamphlets, Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, p. 45.Google Scholar
  54. 50.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV Pamphlets. 8; African Colonization: An Address Delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  55. 51.
    Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, pp. 164–165.Google Scholar
  56. 52.
  57. 53.
    John Lauritz Larsen, ‘Jefferson’s Union and the Problem of Internal Improvements.’ In Jeffersonian Legacies, edited by Peter S. Onuf, pp. 343–344.Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, pp. 31–33.Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    See articles five and seven of the constitution of Maryland in Liberia. Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, p. 33.Google Scholar
  60. 56.
    Interestingly, the MSCS transported approximately 1,000 emigrants during its existence.Google Scholar
  61. 57.
    Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, p. 54.Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, 4. An Address by C. C. Harper, January 23, 1835.Google Scholar
  63. 59.
  64. 60.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent. Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to James Hall, October 11, 1832.Google Scholar
  65. 61.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent. Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to George R. McGill, October 12, 1832.Google Scholar
  66. 62.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III. Correspondence Sent. D. Latrobe Letter Books, John Latrobe to Robert Finley, March 17, 1837.Google Scholar
  67. 63.
    MSCS Papers, reel 1, I. Minutes, January 7, 1837.Google Scholar
  68. 64.
    MSCS Papers, reel 3, II, Correspondence Received. John Russwurm to John Latrobe, February 12, 1837; reel 16, III, Correspondence Sent, Corresponding Secretary’s Books, John Latrobe to James Hall, October 11, 1832; John Latrobe to John Hersey, September 1833; John Latrobe to James Hall, June 2, 1834; John Latrobe to John Russwurm, June 20, 1836; Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, p. 55.Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, p. 55.Google Scholar
  70. 66.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. 6. Report of the Committee on the Coloured Population of Answers of the President of the Colonization Society of Maryland, in obedience to the order adopted by the House of Delegates, on the 4th of January, 1841, p. 12.Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Annual Reports of the ACS, vol. 11, (January 1828): p. 9.Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    Ibid., pp. 9–12.Google Scholar
  73. 69.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III. Correspondence Sent. D. Latrobe Letter Books, John Latrobe to John Russwurm, October 24, 1837.Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. 10. African Colonization An Address delivered by Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, President of the American Colonization Society, at the Anniversary Meeting of the American Colonization Society, January 21, 1862, p. 13.Google Scholar
  75. 71.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XIII, Colonization Pamphlets. Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, p. 45. See also Tom Shick, ‘A Quantitative Analysis of Liberian Colonization,’ pp. 45–59.Google Scholar
  76. 72.
    Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia, p. 88.Google Scholar
  77. 73.
    MSCS Papers, reel 16, III. Correspondence Sent. John Latrobe to Robert S. Finley, Jr., March 17, 1837.Google Scholar
  78. 74.
    MSCS Papers, reel 17, III. Correspondence Sent. John Latrobe to John Latrobe to John Russwurm, January 27, 1840; John Latrobe to William A. Prout, January 7, 1852.Google Scholar
  79. 75.
    MSCS Papers, reel 31, XV, Pamphlets. 10. African Colonization An Address delivered by Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, January 21, 1862, 12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene S. Vansickle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryWest Virginia UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations