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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 175–213 | Cite as

Frank Altschul, Lazard Freres, and the Council on Foreign Relations: The Evolution of a Transatlantic Thinker

  • Priscilla Roberts
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Notes

  1. 1.
    See Allan Nevins, Herbert H. Lehman and His Era, New York, 1963Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    Cary Reich, Financier: The Biography of André Meyer, New York, 1983Google Scholar
  3. 1b.
    Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy, New York, 1977Google Scholar
  4. 1c.
    Peter Grose, Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996, New York, 1996Google Scholar
  5. 1d.
    Robert D. Schulzinger, The Wise Men of Foreign Affairs: The History of the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  6. 1e.
    Michael Wala, The Council on Foreign Relations and American Policy in the Early Cold War, Oxford, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 2.
    Charles Altschul to Editor, Toronto Globe, July 14, 1918, File James T. Shotwell, Charles Altschul Papers, Lehman Suite, Columbia University, New York; Nevins, Herbert H. Lehman, pp. 29, 51.Google Scholar
  8. 3.
    See Priscilla Roberts, ‘A Conflict of Loyalties: Kuhn, Loeb & Company and the First World War, 1914–1917’, Studies in the American Jewish Experience, II, eds. Jacob R. Marcus and Abraham J. Peck, Cincinnati and Washington, DC, 1984, pp. 1–32, 169–182.Google Scholar
  9. 4.
    Charles Altschul to Paul Hammerschlag, January 23, March 22, 1915, May 3, 1920, January 10, 1921, February 16, 1927, and no date [1919 or 1920], Files Paul Hammerschlag 1914–1919, 1920–1922, 1926–1927, Charles Altschul Papers; Charles Altschul to Willy Altschul, March 11, 1915, File Willy Altschul, Charles Altschul Papers; Charles Altschul to Carl Heyman, February 27, March 12, April 3, 1915, File Carl Heyman, Charles Altschul Papers; Charles Altschul to Frank Altschul, December 21, 1925, File Frank Altschul, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul, ‘The War Guilt Controversy,’ Current History (June 1926), copy in Writings File, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  10. 5.
    Altschul to Arthur Goodhart, January 8, 1923, File Arthur Goodhart, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul to Mr. Berrien, January 18, 1921, File Letters and Articles About Europe’s Debt, Charles Altschul Papers. Eugene Meyer, later the proprietor of The Washington Post and another scion of the Lazard Frères San Francisco banking families, shared this perspective, which seems to have drawn heavily on the navalist outlook of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan. Eugene Meyer, oral history interviews, January 6, 1952, p. 59, January 7, 1952, p. 66, February 3, 1952, pp. 170–171, 212–214, draft oral histories, Eugene Meyer Papers, Library of Congress Manuscripts Division, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    Altschul, notes on Germany, 1917 or 1918, Writings File, Charles Altschul Papers; material in File Guy Ford, Charles Altschul Papers; Charles Altschul, German Militarism and Its Critics, Washington, DC, 1918.Google Scholar
  12. 7.
    Charles Altschul, The American Revolution in Our School Textbooks, New York, 1917; Roosevelt to Altschul, September 8, 1917, Northcliffe to Altschul, October 18, 1917, Bryce to Altschul, January 9, 1918, File Letters re the American Revolution, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  13. 8.
    Altschul to Frank Simonds, December 8, 1918, File Frank Simonds, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  14. 9.
    Altschul to André Lazard, January 10, 1921, File Lazard, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  15. 10.
    On this distinction among United States internationalists of the First World War and interwar period, see Priscilla Roberts, ‘The Anglo-American Theme: American Visions of an Atlantic Alliance, 1914–1933,’ Diplomatic History, 21 (1997), pp. 333–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 10a.
    Nicholas J. Cull, ‘Selling Peace: The Origins, Promotion and Fate of the Anglo-American New Order During World War II,’ Diplomacy and Statecraft, 7 (1996), pp. 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 11.
    Altschul to James T. Shotwell, March 15, 1919, File James T. Shotwell, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul to ‘E’, February 18, 1919, File E Miscellaneous, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  18. 12.
    Altschul to ‘E’, February 18, 1919, File E Miscellaneous, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  19. 13.
    Altschul to Simonds, December 2, 1918, File Frank H. Simonds, Charles Altschul Papers; see also Altschul to ‘E’, February 18, 1919, File Miscellaneous E, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  20. 14.
    Altschul to Shotwell, March 19, November 11, 1919, File James T. Shotwell, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul to Simonds, March 6, September 9, 1919, File Frank H. Simonds, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  21. 15.
    Altschul to Berrien, January 18, 1921, File Letters and Articles About Europe’s Debt, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  22. 16.
    Altschul to Goodhart, January 8, 1923, File Arthur Goodhart, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  23. 17.
    Altschul to André Lazard, January 10, 1921, File Lazard, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul, ‘Europe’s Debt and Our Own,’ New York Times, February 6, 1921, File Letters and Articles about Europe’s Debt, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul, ‘A Plea for Cancellation,’ Current History (July 1927), copy in Writings File, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul to James G. McDonald, March 16, 1925, File James G. McDonald, Charles Altschul Papers; Altschul to Goodhart, January 8, 1923, File Arthur Goodhart, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  24. 18.
    Charles Altschul to McDonald, March 16, 1925, File James G. McDonald, Charles Altschul Papers; also Altschul to Goodhart, January 8, 1923, File Arthur Goodhart, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  25. 19.
    Charles Altschul to McDonald, March 16, 1925, File James G. McDonald, Charles Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  26. 20.
    Frank Altschul, notes for Yale alumni group, c. 1928, Series Writings By and About Frank Altschul, Frank Altschul Papers, Lehman Suite, Columbia University, New York [hereafter Altschul Papers]. It was probably symptomatic of Altschul’s fundamentally private and reserved nature that, apart from his father, he corresponded most extensively with his two brothers-in-law, Herbert Lehman and Arthur Goodhart.Google Scholar
  27. 21.
    Altschul to Anthony Nutting, December 6, 1955, File Ni-Nu, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  28. 22.
    Altschul to Charles Saltzmann, January 29, 1963, English-Speaking Union, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  29. 23.
    Altschul to Charles Saltzmann, January 29, 1963, English-Speaking Union, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  30. 24.
    Altschul to George Ball, October 4, 1962, File Bab-Bal, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Altschul, speech introducing Lord Salter, c. 1956, File Sa-Saz, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  31. 25.
    Frank Altschul, notes for Yale alumni group, c. 1928, Series Writings By and About Frank Altschul, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  32. 26.
    See Frank Altschul’s lifelong correspondence with Brand, Files Robert H. Brand, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers; and the extensive correspondence between Brand and Charles and Frank Altschul scattered through the Robert H. Brand Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Oxford, England. Although there is no biography of Brand, he features prominently in James Fox, The Langhorne Sisters, London, 1998Google Scholar
  33. 26.
    Norman Rose, The Cliveden Set: Portrait of an Exclusive Fraternity, London, 2000Google Scholar
  34. 26.
    Alexander C. May, ‘The Round Table, 1910–66,’ D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1995; andGoogle Scholar
  35. 26.
    Andrea Bosco and Alexander May, eds., The Round Table, the Empire/Commonwealth, and British Foreign Policy, London, 1997.Google Scholar
  36. 27.
    Altschul, ‘Exchange Situation/memorandum presented to the French ministry of finance, January 24, 1924, Altschul, memorandum, ‘En étudiant l’opportunité,’ no date but clearly 1924, two other draft memoranda, possibly by Altschul, probably for French government’s use, 1924, Christian Lazard to Altschul, February 26, March 18, 19, 29, 1924, Altschul to Lazard, March 13, 1924, File Christian Lazard, Altschul Papers; H. Clark Johnson, Gold, France, and the Great Depression, 1919–1932, New Haven, Connecticut, 1997, p. 79Google Scholar
  37. 27a.
    Stephen Schuker, The End of French Predominance in Europe: The Financial Crisis of 1924 and the Adoption of the Dawes Plan, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1976, pp. 104–106, 111, 114–115, 117–120Google Scholar
  38. 27b.
    Anne Sabouret, MM Lazard Fréres: Une saga de la fortune, Paris, 1987, pp. 67–72Google Scholar
  39. 27c.
    Barry Eichengreen, Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919–1939, New York, 1992, pp. 176–178Google Scholar
  40. 27d.
    Charles S. Maier, Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War 1, Princeton, 1975, pp. 460–461.Google Scholar
  41. 28.
    Christian Lazard to Altschul, August 27, 1924, Altschul to Lazard, September 15, 1924, File Christian Lazard, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers; on this issue see also Schuker, The End of French Predominance in Europe, pp. 153, 289–294.Google Scholar
  42. 29.
    Laurent Chemineau, l’Incroyable Histoire de Lazard Frères: La Banque qui Règne sur le Monde des Affaires, Paris, 1998, p. 32.Google Scholar
  43. 30.
    On Europe’s economic recovery of the 1920s and the role that American financiers played therein, see especially Ron Chernow, The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance, New York, 1990, pp. 270–359Google Scholar
  44. 30a.
    Stephen V.O. Clarke, Central Bank Cooperation, 1924–1931, New York, 1967; Eichengreen, Golden FettersGoogle Scholar
  45. 30b.
    Michael J. Hogan, Informal Entente: The Private Structure of Cooperation in Anglo-American Economic Diplomacy, 1918–1928, Columbia, Missouri, 1977, chaps. 1–5Google Scholar
  46. 30c.
    Melvyn P. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: America’s Pursuit of European Stability and French Security, 1919–1933, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1979, chaps. 2–5Google Scholar
  47. 30d.
    William C. McNeil, American Money and the Weimar Republic: Economics and Politics on the Eve of the Great Depression, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  48. 30e.
    Richard Hemmig Meyer, Bankers ‘Diplomacy: Monetary Stabilization in the Twenties, New York, 1970; Schuker, The End of French Predominance in Europe.Google Scholar
  49. 31.
    See Hamilton Fish Armstrong Files, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; the voluminous Council on Foreign Relations Files, Organizations File, Altschul Papers; Files Frank Altschul, Box 2, Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscripts Library, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; and the works by Wala, Shoup and Minter, Schulzinger, and Grose previously cited in note 1.Google Scholar
  50. 32.
    Altschul to William C. Grace, n. d. [July or August 1921], File 87, Council on Foreign Relations, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  51. 33.
    See Norman H. Davis to Grace, August 16, 1921, Herbert S. Houston to Grace, August 19, 1921, Fred I. Kent to Grace, August 11, 1921, File 87, Council on Foreign Relations, Organizations File, Altschul Papers; Isaiah Bowman to Grace, August 13, 1921, File 25, Isaiah Bowman, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Archibald C. Coolidge to Grace, August 11, 1921, File 44, Archibald C. Coolidge, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Hamilton Holt to Grace, August 11, 1921, File 98, Hamilton Holt, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  52. 34.
    See the very extensive files on the Council on Foreign Relations, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  53. 35.
    Altschul to Franklin D. Roosevelt, October 4, 1932, File 176, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; also Herbert Lehman Files, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  54. 36.
    See Altschul, unfinished letter to Lehman, n.d., File 128, Herbert Lehman, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Altschul, draft portions of Roosevelt speech, n.d. [1932], and November 1, 1932, Writings and Speeches File, Altschul Papers; correspondence in Files 176, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and File 151, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; and File 359, Raymond Moley, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  55. 37.
    Altschul to Moley, July 20, 1934, September 17, 1934 [not sent], File 359, Raymond C. Moley, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  56. 38.
    Altschul to Alfred M. Landon, January 30, 1936, File 51, Alfred M. Landon, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Altschul, Memorandum re Visit to Kansas City and Topeka, February 10, 1936, File 93, 1936 Campaign, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  57. 39.
    See correspondence in File 51, Alfred M. Landon, Political Series, Altschul Papers, and File 124, Alfred M. Landon, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  58. 40.
    Altschul to John Hamilton, August 30, 1937, File 37, John H. Hamilton, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  59. 41.
    Altschul to Glenn Frank, August 27, 1938, File 73, Glenn Frank, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Altschul, ‘Revolution by Inadvertence,’ May 1937, Altschul, ‘The Challenge to Republican Leadership,’ August 26, 1938, Speeches and Writings File, Altschul Papers; three clippings from New York Mirror, October 1938, File Frank Altschul Clippings, 1938–1961, Writings and Speeches File, Altschul Papers; draft report, 1938, and other papers and memoranda, Files 113 and 114, Republican Program Committee, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  60. 42.
    Altschul to Guy Gabrielson, December 13, 1949, File 108, Republican Party-Republican National Committee, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  61. 43.
    See Files Robert H. Brand, David David-Weill, Pierre David-Weill, Arthur Goodhart, Sir Robert Kindersley, Lazard Frères Partners and Family, A. D. Marris, André Meyer, and Granville Tyser, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  62. 44.
    Altschul to Henry A. Bubb, March 17, 1939, File Jews and Judaism 1937–1945 B-F, Subject Files, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  63. 45.
    Reich, Financier, pp. 39–41. Correspondence relating to Altschul’s assistance and support for such refugees is scattered through his General Correspondence and Catalogued Correspondence Files.Google Scholar
  64. 46.
    Altschul, second draft of memorandum or speech, April 1940, Notes and Memoranda re World War II, Speeches and Writings File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  65. 47.
    Altschul to Samuel F. Pryor, Jr., September 20, 1939, File 64, Samuel F. Pryor, Jr., Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  66. 48.
    Altschul to Congressman Charles A. Halleck, February 6, 1939, File 35, Charles A. Halleck, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  67. 49.
    Altschul to Landon, September 27, 1939, File 124, Alfred M. Landon, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; also Altschul to Stimson, October 31, 1939, Stimson to Altschul, October 31, 1939, File Herbert H. Lehman, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  68. 50.
    Altschul to Roosevelt, May 17, 1940, File 176, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  69. 51.
    Altschul to Herbert Lehman, May 18, 1940, File 128, Herbert Lehman, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  70. 52.
    See File 223, Michael Huxley, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  71. 53.
    Altschul to Dorothy Thompson, July 15, 1940, File 208, Dorothy Thompson, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Brand to Altschul, March 15, July 9, 1940, Altschul to Brand, April 3, 1940, File Robert H. Brand, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  72. 54.
    Altschul to Walter S. Hallanan, August 10, 1939, File 34, Walter Hallanan, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Altschul to James H. Douglas, Jr., April 22, 1940, File 23, James H. Douglas, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Altschul to Robert H. Fleming, June 19, 1950, File 82, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Steve Neal, Dark Horse: A Biography of Wendell Willkie, Garden City, New York, 1984, pp. 53–54.Google Scholar
  73. 55.
    Altschul to editor, New York Times, August 17, 1939, File Letters to Editor, Writings and Speeches File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  74. 56.
    See Correspondence in Files 80 and 81, Wendell Willkie 1940, Political Series, Altschul Papers, quotation from Altschul to Horace W. Davis, May 7, 1940, File 80, Wendell Willkie A-L 1940; correspondence in File 47, William S. Howe, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  75. 57.
    See correspondence in File 79 Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  76. 58.
    William A. White to Altschul, September 3, 1940, File 5, General Correspondence T-Z, Political File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  77. 59.
    Altschul to Willkie, September 4, 1940, File 79, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul, ‘Memorandum of Conversation with Wendell L. Willkie,’ November 30, 1940, File 79, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Willkie, December 12, 1940, File 79, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul, speech, no date [1941], Speeches and Writings File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  81. 63.
    Altschul to James B. Conant and Lewis Douglas, December 13, 1940, Altschul to Roosevelt, December 30, 1940, File 67, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul, ‘Telephone Conversation with Wendell L. Willkie (Hobe Sound, Florida),’ December 30, 1940, File 79, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Kindersley to Altschul, March 26, 1941, File Sir Robert Kindersley, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Alan Valentine, February 13, 1941, File Alan Valentine, General Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul, speech to Kiwanis Club, July 2, 1941, Speeches and Writings File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
  86. 68.
    Frank Altschul, Let No Wave Engulf Us: A Challenge to Moderates, New York, 1941; also clippings from New York Herald Tribune, April 27, 1941, and PM, April 23, 1941, Writings and Speeches File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul’s Secretary to Styles Bridges, March 31, 1943, File 15, Styles Bridges, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Arthur H. Vandenberg, January 15, 1945, File 75, Arthur H. Vandenberg, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Altschul to Charles A. Halleck, April 21, 1948, File 36, Charles A. Halleck, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Altschul to Dean Rusk, November 5, 1964, File 182, Dean Rusk, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Altschul to Joseph E. Johnson, April 18, 1958, and other materials in Council on Foreign Relations-Discussion Group on The United Nations and U.S. Foreign Policy 1958, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul, ‘Wise Statesmanship Needed in the Post-War World,’ letter published in The New York Times, December 20, 1942, Speeches and Writings File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Hamilton, May 12, 1943, File 38, John Hamilton, Political Series, Altschul Papers; see also Altschul to Frederick S. Dunn, March 18, 1943, Altschul to William T. R. Fox, July 5, 1944, File Yale University, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Eleanor Roosevelt, February 17, 1943, enclosing ‘Memorandum in Regard to Post War Exchange Stabilization,’ February 17, 1943, File Stabilization, Subject File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Jeidels, April 2, 1945, File Otto Jeidels, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; Altschul to H. Alexander Smith, March 19, 23, 1945, File 72, H. Alexander Smith, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Charles Seymour to Arthur Ballantine, November 19, 1942, File Yale University, Organizations File, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Jeidels, December 27, 1943, May 1, 1944, File Otto Jeidels, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers, quotation from second letter cited.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Luce, September 27, 1943, File 136, Henry Luce, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers; also Altschul to Clare Boothe Luce, June 29, 1943, File 135, Clare Boothe Luce, Catalogued Correspondence, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Willkie, October 8, 1941, January 16, 1942, File 82, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers.Google Scholar
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    Altschul to Willkie, November 19, 1942, File 82 Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers. In 1944 Altschul refused to back Willkie’s renewed campaign for the Republican nomination. Altschul to Willkie, April 10, 1944, File 82, Wendell Willkie, Political Series, Altschul Papers; Neal, Dark Horse, pp. 225–226.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priscilla Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Hong KongHong Kong

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