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Journal of Transatlantic Studies

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 152–174 | Cite as

Franklin Roosevelt and the Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938: A New Perspective on Anglo-American Relations in the Era of Appeasement

  • Tony McCulloch
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Recent accounts are to be found in J. Charmley, Neville Chamberlain and the Lost Peace, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1989Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    R.A.C. Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement: British Policy and the Coming of the Second World War, Macmillan, London, 1993; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1b.
    P. Shen, The Age of Appeasement: The Evolution of British Foreign Policy in the 1930s, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 1c.
    Fullest coverage of the Runciman Mission is to be found in J.W. Wheeler-Bennett, Munich — Prologue to Tragedy, Macmillan, London, 1963 (second edition); andGoogle Scholar
  5. 1d.
    T. Taylor, Munich: the Price of Peace, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 1e.
    See also A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Penguin, London, 1963 (second edition).Google Scholar
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    D.C. Watt, How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-39, William Heinemann Ltd, London, 1989, pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
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    D. Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, 1937-41: A Study in Competitive Cooperation, Europa Publications Ltd, London, 1981Google Scholar
  9. 3a.
    C.A. MacDonald, The United States and British Appeasement, 1936-1939, Macmillan, London, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    W.R. Rock, Chamberlain and Roosevelt: British Foreign Policy and the United States, 1937-1940, Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1988Google Scholar
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    D.C. Watt, ‘Roosevelt and Chamberlain: Two Appeasers’ International Journal, 28 (1973), pp. 185–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    W.V. Wallace, ‘Roosevelt and British Appeasement in 1938’, Bulletin of the British Association for American Studies, 5 (1952), pp. 4–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    B.R. Farnham, Roosevelt and the Munich Crisis: A Study of Political Decision-Making, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1997.Google Scholar
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    There is also no mention of the Runciman Mission in standard American works such as R. Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945, Oxford University Press, New York, 1979 andGoogle Scholar
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    A. Offner, American Appeasement: United States Foreign Policy and Germany, 1933-1938, W.W. Norton, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
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    Watt, How War Came, pp. 25–29.Google Scholar
  17. 6.
    House of Commons Debates, 1937-38, Vol. 338, 26 July 1938, Neville Chamberlain, cols 2938–2961.Google Scholar
  18. 7.
    House of Commons Debates, 1937-38, Vol. 338, 26 July 1938, Neville Chamberlain, cols 2957–2958.Google Scholar
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    House of Lords Debates, 27 July 1938, Lord Halifax.Google Scholar
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    L.W. Fuchser, Neville Chamberlain and Appeasement: A Study in the Politics of History, W W Norton & Co, New York, 1982, pp. 66–67.Google Scholar
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    See also R. Crockett, Twilight of Truth: Chamberlain, Appeasement and the Manipulation of the Press, St Martin’s Press, New York, 1989 andGoogle Scholar
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    A. Adamthwaite, ‘The British Government and the Media, 1937-38’, Journal of Contemporary History, 18 (1983), pp. 281–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement; Watt, How War Came; and J.W. Bruegel, Czechoslovakia before Munich: The German Minority Problem and British Appeasement Policy, Cambridge University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
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    Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement, pp. 134–139.Google Scholar
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    Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement, pp. 139–151.Google Scholar
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    FO 371, Vol. 21723, C5297/1941/18. Berlin tel. 254 from Henderson to Halifax, 1 June 1938.Google Scholar
  27. 14.
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    PREM 1/265, Horace Wilson to Halifax, 22 June 1938.Google Scholar
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    FO 800/309, Runciman to Halifax, 30 June 1938; Halifax to Runciman, 1 July 1938; Runciman tel. to Halifax, no date; Runciman tel. to Halifax, no date. FO 371, Vol. 21728, C7273/1941/18. FO minutes by Cadogan (16 July 1938) and Halifax (16 July 1938).Google Scholar
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    FO 371, Vol. 21727, C7304/1941/18, Prague tel. 380, Newton to Halifax, 20 July 1938.Google Scholar
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    H.C. Debates, 1937-38, Vol. 338, 26 July 1938, Chamberlain, col. 2958.Google Scholar
  32. 19.
    H.C. Debates, 1937-38, Vol. 338, 26 July 1938, Colonel Wedgewood, col. 2992 and Mander, col. 3031.Google Scholar
  33. 20.
    H.C. Debates, 1937-38, Vol. 338, 26 July 1938, Geoffrey Mander, cols 3031–3032.Google Scholar
  34. 21.
    Eg. A. J. P. Taylor, Origins of the Second World War, p. 210.Google Scholar
  35. 22.
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  36. 23.
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    PREM 1, Vol. 291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937. ‘Conversations with President Roosevelt and Mr Hull’. Also FO 371, 20656, A1059/93/45. See also Richard Harrison, The Runciman Visit to Washington in January 1937, Canadian Journal of History, XIX, August 1984, pp. 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 27.
    Elibank Papers, Box 8809, Roosevelt to Murray, 17 June 1937.Google Scholar
  41. 28.
    FO 371, 19836, A8677/3173/45. FO minute by Sir R. Vansittart, 11 November 1936. FO minute by A. Eden, 12 November 1936Google Scholar
  42. 29.
    For the Quarantine speech see Rock, Chamberlain and Roosevelt; MacDonald, The United States and Appeasement; Dorothy Borg, Notes on Roosevelt’s ‘Quarantine’ Speech, Political Science Quarterly, LXXII (1957) pp 424–433Google Scholar
  43. 29a.
    John McV. Haight Jr, Roosevelt and the Aftermath of the Quarantine Speech, The Review of Politics, 24 (April 1962), pp. 233–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 30.
    For the Ingersoll talks and Roosevelt’s initiative see Rock, Chamberlain and Roosevelt; MacDonald, The United States and Appeasement; Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance.Google Scholar
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  46. 32.
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  47. 33.
    E.g. Daily Telegraph, 21 July 1938.Google Scholar
  48. 34.
    The Times, 6, 7, 9 July 1938Google Scholar
  49. 35.
    H.C. Debates, 26 July 1938, Sir Archibald Sinclair.Google Scholar
  50. 36.
    H.C. Debates, 26 July 1938, Neville Chamberlain.Google Scholar
  51. 37.
    Cabinet Papers, 28 July 1938, CAB 36(38).Google Scholar
  52. 38.
    FO 371, 21730, C7757/1941/18. FO minute by Halifax, 29 July 1938. See also MacDonald, The United States, Britain and Appeasement, pp. 89–91.Google Scholar
  53. 39.
    State Department 760F.62/528: London tel. 699, Kennedy to Hull, 29 July 1938 (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1 pp537–539).Google Scholar
  54. 40.
    Runciman to Roosevelt, 28 July 1938 (PSF: Great Britain: AS), in D.B. Schewe, FDR and Foreign Affairs, Garland, New York, 1979, Vol. 6, May 1938–August 1938, No 1208.Google Scholar
  55. 41.
    Runciman Papers, Box 284, Murray to Runciman, 27 July 1938.Google Scholar
  56. 42.
    SD 760F. 62/508, State Dept tel, Hull to Roosevelt on USS Houston, 26 July 1938 (not in FRUS).Google Scholar
  57. 43.
    SD 033.4111/13: memo on ‘Right Honourable Walter Runciman’ 22 January 1937.Google Scholar
  58. 44.
    PREM 1, Vol. 291, Runciman to Baldwin, 8 February 1937. ‘Conversations with President Roosevelt and Mr Hull’.Google Scholar
  59. 45.
    Pierrepont Moffat Diary, Houghton Library, Harvard University, 12 May 1938, quoted in MacDonald, The United States, Britain and Appeasement, p.90.Google Scholar
  60. 46.
    Hull to Roosevelt, 29 July 1938, President’s Official File 20, referred to in MacDonald, The United States, Britain and Appeasement, p. 90.Google Scholar
  61. 47.
    SD 760F.62/673 Prague tel. 233, Carr to Hull, 6 August 1938 (FRUS 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 540–544).Google Scholar
  62. 48.
    SD 760F.62/556. Memorandum of conversations by Chief of Division of European Affairs (Moffat) 5 August 1938 (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 539-40).Google Scholar
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    Moffat Diary, 6 August 1938, referred to in MacDonald, The United States, Britain and Appeasement, pp. 90–91.Google Scholar
  64. 50.
    The Times, 17 August 1938Google Scholar
  65. 51.
    The Times, 28 August 1938Google Scholar
  66. 52.
    SD 7560F.62/1037, memo by Hull on meeting with Sir R Lindsay, British Ambassador, 3 September 1938Google Scholar
  67. 53.
    Murray to Roosevelt, 30 July 1938 (PSF: Great Britain: Murray: TS), FDRFA, Vol 6, No 1211.Google Scholar
  68. 54.
    Bullitt to Roosevelt, 17 August 1938 (PSF: France: Bullitt: TS), FDRFA, Vol. 6, No 1231Google Scholar
  69. 55.
    Memo by A. Berle Jr, Asst Secretary of State, for Roosevelt, 15 August 1938. (PSF: State: Berle: T), FDRFA, Vol. 6, No 1225.Google Scholar
  70. 56.
    Speech by Roosevelt, Queens University, 18 August 1938. (Speech File: TS), FDRFA, Vol. 6, No 1234.Google Scholar
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    FO 371, 21526, A6491/64/45, Washington tel. 324, Lindsay to Halifax, 18 August 1938. FO minute by Perowne.Google Scholar
  72. 58.
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    FO 371, 21732, C8867/1941/18 FO tel. 242, Halifax to Newton, 27 August 1938. (DBFP, 3rd series, Vol. 2, 1938, No 704, pp.172–1175).Google Scholar
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    SD 760F.62/628, London tel. 838, Kennedy to Hull, 30 August 1938 (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 560–561).Google Scholar
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    SD 760F.62/634, London tel. 846, Kennedy to Hull, 31 August 1938 (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 568-69).Google Scholar
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    SD 123 Kennedy, Joseph P/109, State Dept tel. 492, Hull to Kennedy, 1 September 1938. (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 568-69).Google Scholar
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    Eg, SD 760F.62/640, Berlin tel. 410, Wilson to Hull, 1 September 1938. (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 566-67).Google Scholar
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    SD 760F.62/660, Warsaw tel. 168, Biddle to Hull, 5 September 1938. (FRUS, 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 576–577).Google Scholar
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    FO 371, 21733, C8715/1941/18, FO tel. 235, Halifax to Newton, 25 August 1938. (DBFP, 3rd series, Vol. 2, Nos 686 and 687, pp. 153–155).Google Scholar
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    FO 371, 21733, C8796/1941/18, Prague tel. 471, Newton to Halifax, 26 August 1938. (DBFP, 3rd series, Vol. 2, No 695, pp. 164–165).Google Scholar
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    Eg. A.J.P. Taylor, Origins of the Second World War.Google Scholar
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    FO 371, 21735, C9278/1941/18, letter from Runciman to Halifax, 30 August 1938 (DBFP, 3rd series, Vol. 2, 1938, No 723, pp.192–193).Google Scholar
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    FO 371, 21734, C9047/1941/18, Prague tel. 493, Newton to Halifax, 1 September 1938 (DBFP, 3rd series, Vol. 2, 1938, No 730, pp. 198–199).Google Scholar
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© Board of the Journal of Transatlantic Studies 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony McCulloch
    • 1
  1. 1.Canterbury Christ Church University CollegeUK

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