The Cerebellum

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 268–279 | Cite as

The cerebellum and motor dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders

  • E. Gowen
  • R. C. Miall
Open Access
Original Article


The cerebellum is densely interconnected with sensory-motor areas of the cerebral cortex, and in man, the great expansion of the association areas of cerebral cortex is also paralleled by an expansion of the lateral cerebellar hemispheres. It is therefore likely that these circuits contribute to non-motor cognitive functions, but this is still a controversial issue. One approach is to examine evidence from neuropsychiatric disorders of cerebellar involvement. In this review, we narrow this search to test whether there is evidence of motor dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatrie disorders consistent with disruption of cerebellar motor function. While we do find such evidence, especially in autism, schizophrenia and dyslexia, we caution that the restricted set of motor symptoms does not suggest global cerebellar dysfunction. Moreover, these symptoms may also reflect involvement of other, extra-cerebellar circuits and detailed examination of specific sub groups of individuals within each disorder may help to relate such motor symptoms to cerebellar morphology.

Key words

Movement cognitive imaging psychiatric 


  1. 1.
    Allen G, Buxton RB, Wong EC. Attentional activation of the cerebellum independent of motor involvement. Science. 1997;275:1940–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Konarski JZ, Mclntyre RS, Grupp LA, Kennedy SH. Is the cerebellum relevant in the circuitry of neuropsychiatric disorders? J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2005;30:178–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leroi I, O’Hearn E, Marsh L, et al. Psychopathology in patients with degenerative cerebellar diseases: A comparison to Huntington’s disease. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159: 1306–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmahmann JD. An emerging concept. The cerebellar contribution to higher function. Arch Neurol. 1991;48: 1178–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmahmann JD, Sherman JC. The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Brain. 1998;121(Pt 4):561–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schmahmann JD. Disorders of the cerebellum: Ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;16: 367–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmahmann JD. Rediscovery of an early concept. In: Schmahmann JD, editor. The cerebellum and cognition. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997. pp 3–27.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramnani N. The primate cortico-cerebellar system: Anatomy and function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(7): 511–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramnani N, Behrens TE, Johansen-Berg H, et al. The evolution of prefrontal inputs to the cortico-pontine system: Diffusion imaging evidence from Macaque monkeys and humans. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16(6):811–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne E, Townsend J. Attention coordination and anticipatory control. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1997;41:575–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moretti R, Bava A, Torre P, et al. Reading errors in patients with cerebellar vermis lesions. J Neurol. 2002;249:461–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Scott RB, Stoodley CJ, Anslow P, Paul C, Stein JF, et al. Lateralized cognitive deficits in children following cerebellar lesions. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001;43:685–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wassmer E, Davies P, Whitehouse WP, Green SH. Clinical spectrum associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. Pediatr Neurol. 2003;28:347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holmes G. The symptoms of acute cerebellar lesions due to gunshot injuries. Brain. 1917;40:461–535.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holmes G. The cerebellum of man. Brain. 1939;62:l-30.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eccles JC, Ito M, Szentagothai J. The cerebellum as a neuronal machine. New York: Springer; 1967.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ito M. The cerebellum and neural control. New York: Raven Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stein JF, Glickstein M. The role of the cerebellum in the visual guidance of movement. Physiol Rev. 1992;72: 967–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thach WT, Goodkin HP, Keating JG. The cerebellum and the adaptive coordination of movement. Ann Rev Neurosci. 1992;15:403–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frith U. Autism and Asperger’s syndrome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child. 1943;2:217–50.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bauman ML. Motor dysfunction in autism. In: Joseph AB, Young RR, editors. Movement disorders in neurology and neuropsychiatry. Boston MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. pp 658–61.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wing L. Asperger’s syndrome: A clinical account. Psychol Med. 1981;11:115–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fawcett AJ, Nicolson RI. Performance of dyslexic children on cerebellar and cognitive tests. J Mot Behav. 1999;31: 68–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ, Dean P. Developmental dyslexia: The cerebellar deficit hypothesis. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:508–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bombin I, Arangon C, Buchanan RW. Significance and meaning of neurological signs in schizophrenia: Two decades later. Schizophr Bull. 2005;31:962–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kraepelin E. Dementia praecox and paraphrenia. Edinburgh, UK: E&S Livingstone; 1919.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Owens DG, Johnstone EC, Frith CD. Spontaneous involuntary disorders of movement: their prevalence, severity, and distribution in chronic schizophrenics with and without treatment with neuroleptics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:452–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dichgans J, Diener HC. Clinical evidence for functional compartmentalization of the cerebellum. In: Bioedel JR, Dichgans J, Precht W, editors. Cerebellar functions. Berlin/ Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1984. pp 126–47.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bonnefoi-Kyriacou B, Legallet E, Lee RG, Trouche E. Spatio-temporal and kinematic analysis of pointing movements performed by cerebellar patients with limb ataxia. Exp Brain Res. 1998;119:460–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miall RC, Christensen LO. The effect of rTMS over the cerebellum in normal human volunteers on peg-board movement performance. Neurosci Lett. 2004;371:185–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miall RC, Reckess GZ, Imamizu H. The cerebellum coordinates eye and hand tracking movements. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:638–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    van Donkelaar P, Lee RG. Interactions between the eye and hand motor systems: Disruptions due to cerebellar dysfunction. J Neurophysiol. 1994;72:1674–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Johnson. DS, Montgomery EB. Chapter 44: Pathophysiology of cerebellar disorders. In: Watts R, Koller W, editors. Movement disorders: Neurological principles and practice. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1997. pp 587–610.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ivry RB, Keele SW, Diener HC. Dissociation of the lateral and medial cerebellum in movement timing and movement execution. Exp Brain Res. 1988;73:167–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ivry R, Keele SW. Timing functions of the cerebellum. J Cogn Neurosci. 1989;1:136–52.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ivry RB, Spencer RM. The neural representation of time. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:225–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diener HC, Dichgans J, Guschlbauer B, Bacher M, Langenbach P. Disturbances of motor preparation in basal ganglia and cerebellar disorders. Prog Brain Res. 1989;80: 481–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Muller F, Dichgans J. Dyscoordination of pinch and lift forces during grasp in patients with cerebellar lesions. Exp Brain Res. 1994;101:485–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nowak DA, Hermsdorfer J, Marquardt C, Fuchs HH. Grip and load force coupling during discrete vertical arm movements with a grasped object in cerebellar atrophy. Exp Brain Res. 2002;145:28–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Serrien DJ, Wiesendanger M. Role of the cerebellum in tuning anticipatory and reactive grip force responses. J Cogn Neurosci. 1999;11:672–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Theoret H, Haque J, Pascual-Leone A. Increased variability of paced finger tapping accuracy following repetitive magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2001;306:29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dow RS,Moruzzi, editors. The physiology and pathology of the cerebellum. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1958.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grodd W, Hulsmann E, Lotze M, Wildgruber D, Erb M. Sensorimotor mapping of the human cerebellum: fMRI evidence of somatotopic organization. Hum Brain Mapp. 2001;13(2):55–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Manni E, Petrosini L. A century of cerebellar somatotopy: A debated representation. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004;5(3): 241–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bastian A, Thach W. Structure and function of the cerebellum. In: Manto M, Pandolfo M, editors. The cerebellum and its disorders. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2002. pp 49–68.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schoch B, Dimitrova A, Gizewski ER, Timmann D. Functional localization in the human cerebellum based on voxelwise statistical analysis: A study of 90 patients. Neuroimage. 2006;30(1):36–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dum RP, Strick PL. An unfolded map of the cerebellar dentate nucleus and its projections to the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89(1):634–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bower JM. Control of sensory data acquisition. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1997;41:489–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bower JM. Is the cerebellum sensory for motor’s sake, or motor for sensory’s sake: The view from the whiskers of a rat? Prog Brain Res. 1997;114:463–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Paulin MG. The role of the cerebellum in motor control and perception. Brain Behav Evol. 1993;41:39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Paulin MG. Evolution of the cerebellum as a neuronal machine for Bayesian state estimation. J Neural Eng. 2005;2(3):S219–34.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kawato M, Gomi H. A computational model of four regions of the cerebellum based on feedback-error-learning. Biol Cybern. 1992;68:95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kawato M, Kuroda T, Imamizu H, Nakano E, Miyauchi S, Yoshioka T. Internal forward models in the cerebellum: fMRI study on grip force and load force coupling. Prog Brain Res. 2003;142:171–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Miall RC, Weir DJ, Wolpert DM, Stein JF. Is the cerebellum a Smith Predictor? J Motor Behav. 1993;25:203–16.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nixon PD. The role of the cerebellum in preparing responses to predictable sensory events. Cerebellum. 2003;2:114–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Henderson SE, Sugden D, editors. The movement assessment battery for children. London: The Psychological Corporation; 1992.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bruininks RH, editor. The Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service; 1978.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Buchanan RW, Heinrichs DW. The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES): A structured instrument for the assessment of neurological signs in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1989;27:335–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stott DH, Moyes FA, Henerson SE. Manual: Test of motor impairment (Henderson revision). Guelph, Canada: Brook International; 1984.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Frith U. Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004;45:672–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ghaziuddin M, Butler E, Tsai L, et al. Is clumsiness a marker for Asperger syndrome? J Intellect Disabil Res. 1994;38(Pt 5):519–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Manjiviona J, Prior M. Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a test of motor impairment. J Autism Dev Disord. 1995;25:23–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ghaziuddin M, Butler E. Clumsiness in autism and Asperger syndrome: A further report. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1998;42(Pt 1):43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rinehart NJ, Bradshaw JL, Moss SA, et al. A deficit in shifting attention present in high-functioning autism but not Asperger’s disorder. Autism. 2001;5:67–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nayate A, Bradshaw JL, Rinehart NJ. Autism and Asperger’s disorder: Are they movement disorders involving the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia? Brain Res Bull. 2005;67: 327–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gillberg C. Asperger syndrome in 23 Swedish children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1989;31:520–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weimer AK, Schatz AM, Lincoln A, et al. “Motor” impairment in Asperger syndrome: Evidence for a deficit in proprioception. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001;22:92–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Green D, Baird G, Barnett AL, et al. The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger’s syndrome: A comparison with specific developmental disorder of motor function. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2002;43:655–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miyahara M, Tsujii M, Hori M, et al. Brief report: Motor incoordination in children with Asperger syndrome and learning disabilities. J Autism Dev Disord. 1997;27: 595–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gowen E, Miall RC. Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger syndrome. Cerebellum. 2005;4:279–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schmitz C, Martineau J, Barthelemy C, et al. Motor control and children with autism: Deficit of anticipatory function? Neurosci Lett. 2003;348:17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Miall RC, Imamizu H, Miyauchi S. Activation of the cerebellum in co-ordinated eye and hand tracking movements: An fMRI study. Exp Brain Res. 2000;135(1):22–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hardan AY, Kilpatrick M, Keshavan MS, et al. Motor performance and anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the basal ganglia in autism. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:317–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mari M, Castiello U, Marks D, et al. The reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism spectrum disorder. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358:393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ouchi Y, Okada H, Yoshikawa E, et al. Brain activation during maintenance of standing postures in humans. Brain. 1999;122(Pt 2):329–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Minshew NJ, Sung K, Jones BL, et al. Underdevelopment of the postural control system in autism. Neurology. 2004;63: 2056–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Diener HC, Dichgans J. Chapter 9: Cerebellar and spinocerebellar gait disorders. In: Bronstein A, Brandt T, Woollacott M, editors. Clinical disorders of balance, posture and gait. London, Sydney, Aukland: Arnold; 1996. pp 138–55.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martineau J, Schmitz C, Assaiante C, et al. Impairment of a cortical event-related desynchronisation during a bimanual load-lifting task in children with autistic disorder. Neurosci Lett. 2004;367:298–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Flanagan JR, Wing AM. The role of internal models in motion planning and control: Evidence from grip force adjustments during movements of hand-held loads. J Neurosci. 1997;17:1519–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Johansson RS, Westling G. Roles of glabrous skin receptors and sensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip when lifting rougher or more slippery objects. Exp Brain Res. 1984;56:550–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sears LL, Finn PR, Steinmetz JE. Abnormal classical eyeblink conditioning in autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24:737–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Steinmetz JE. Brain substrates of classical eyeblink conditioning: A highly localized but also distributed system. Behav Brain Res. 2000;110:13–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mangels JA, Ivry RB, Shimizu N. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal and neocerebellar cortex to time perception. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 1998;7:15–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nichelli P, Alway D, Grafman J. Perceptual timing in cerebellar degeneration. Neuropsychologia. 1996;34: 863–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Woodruff-Pak D, Papka M, Ivry R. Cerebellar involvement in eyeblink classical conditioning in humans. Neuropsychology. 1996;10:443–58.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bailey A, Luthert P, Dean A, et al. A clinicopathological study of autism. Brain. 1998;121(Pt 5):889–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Courchesne E. Brainstem, cerebellar and limbic neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997;7(2):269–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Abell F, Krams M, Ashburner J, et al. The neuroanatomy of autism: A voxel-based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Neuroreport. 1999;10:1647–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Murakami JW, Courchesne E, Press GA, et al. Reduced cerebellar hemisphere size and its relationship to vermal hypoplasia in autism. Arch Neurol. 1989;46: 689–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ramnani N, Behrens TE, Johansen-Berg H, Richter MC, Pinsk MA, Andersson JL, et al. The evolution of prefrontal inputs to the cortico-pontine system: diffusion imaging evidence from Macaque monkeys and humans. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16(6):811–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pierce K, Courchesne E. Evidence for a cerebellar role in reduced exploration and stereotyped behavior in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:655–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Allen G, Courchesne E. Differential effects of developmental cerebellar abnormality on cognitive and motor functions in the cerebellum: An fMRI study of autism. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:262–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Allen G, Muller RA, Courchesne E. Cerebellar function in autism: Functional magnetic resonance image activation during a simple motor task. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56: 269–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Muller RA, Kleinhans N, Kemmotsu N, et al. Abnormal variability and distribution of functional maps in autism: An FMRI study of visuomotor learning. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1847–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Townsend J, Westerfield M, Leaver E, et al. Event-related brain response abnormalities in autism: Evidence for impaired cerebello-frontal spatial attention networks. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2001;11:127–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne E. A new role for the cerebellum in cognitive operations. Behav Neurosci. 1992;106:731–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ravizza SM, Ivry RB. Comparison of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in shifting attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2001;13: 285–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schoch B, Gorissen B, Richter S, et al. Do children with focal cerebellar lesions show deficits in shifting attention? J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:1856–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bischoff-Grethe A, Ivry RB, Grafton ST. Cerebellar involvement in response reassignment rather than attention. J Neurosci. 2002;22:546–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nicolson RI, Fawcett A.J, Dean P. Time estimation deficits in developmental dyslexia: evidence of cerebellar involvement. Proc Biol Sci. 1995;259:43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fawcett A.J, Nicolson RI, Dean P. Impaired performance of children with dyslexia on a range of cerebellar tasks. Ann Dyslexia. 1996;46:259–83.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stoodley CJ, Fawcett A.J, Nicolson RI, Stein JF. Impaired balancing ability in dyslexic children. Exp Brain Res. 2005;167:370–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stoodley CJ, Stein JF. A processing speed deficit in dyslexic adults? Evidence from a peg-moving task. Neurosci Lett. 2006;399:264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stoodley CJ, Harrison EP, Stein JF. Implicit motor learning deficits in dyslexic adults. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44: 795–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Eckert MA, Leonard CM, Richards TL, Aylward EH, Thomson J, Berninger VW. Anatomical correlates of dyslexia: Frontal and cerebellar findings. Brain. 2003;126(2):482–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Eckert MA. Neuroanatomical markers for dyslexia: A review of dyslexia structural imaging studies. Neuroscientist. 2004;10(4):362–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Eckert MA, Leonard CM, Wilke M, Eckert M, Richards T, Richards A, Berninger V. Anatomical signatures of dyslexia in children: Unique information from manual and voxel based morphometry brain measures. Cortex. 2005;41(3): 304–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rae C, Harasty JA, Dzendrowskyj TE, et al. Cerebellar morphology in developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia. 2002;40:1285–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ, Berry EL, et al. Association of abnormal cerebellar activation with motor learning difficulties in dyslexic adults. Lancet. 1999;353:1662–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ramus F, Pidgeon E, Frith U. The relationship between motor control and phonology in dyslexic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44(5):712–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne E, Press GA, Iragui V. Contribution of the cerebellum to neuropsychological functioning: Evidence from a case of cerebellar degenerative disorder. Neuropsychologia. 1992;30:315–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Snider SR. Cerebellar pathology in schizophrenia-cause or consequence? Neurosci Behave Rev. 1982;6:47–53.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Andreasen NC, O’Leary DS, Cizadlo T, et al. Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: A positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93: 9985–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Andreasen NC, Nopoulos P, O’Leary DS, Miller DD, Wassink T, Flaum M. Defining the phenotype of schizophrenia: Cognitive dysmetria and its neural mechanisms. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:908–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schmahmann JD. The role of the cerebellum in affect and psychosis. J Neurolinguistics. 2000;13:189–214.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bachmann S, Bottmer C, Schroder J. Neurological soft signs in first-episode schizophrenia: A follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:2337–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Heinrichs RW, Zakzanis KK. Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology. 1998;12:426–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Keshavan MS, Sanders RD, Sweeney JA, et al. Diagnostic specificity and neuroanatomical validity of neurological abnormalities in first-episode psychoses. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1298–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Quitkin F, Rifkin A, Klein D. Neurological signs in schizophrenia and character disorders. Arch Gen Psychiat. 1976;33:845–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schroder J, Niethammer R, Geider FJ, et al. Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1991;6:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Venkatasubramanian G, Latha V, Gangadhar BN, et al. Neurological soft signs in never-treated schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;108:144–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dazzan P, Murray RM. Neurological soft signs in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2002;43:s50–7.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Boks MP, Liddle PF, Burgerhof JG, et al. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;110:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lehoux C, Everett J, Laplante L, et al. Fine motor dexterity is correlated to social functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2003;62:269–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sullivan EV, Fama R, Shear PK, et al. Motor sequencing deficits in schizophrenia: A comparison with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology. 2001;15:342–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nopoulos PC, Ceilley JW, Gailis EA, Andreasen NC. An MRI study of cerebellar vermis morphology in patients with schizophrenia: Evidence in support of the cognitive dysmetria concept. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:703–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wassink TH, Andreasen NC, Nopoulos P, Flaum M. Cerebellar morphology as a predictor of symptom and psychosocial outcome in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:41–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Frith CD, Blakemore S, Wolpert DM. Explaining the symptoms of schizophrenia: Abnormalities in the awareness of action. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000;31:357–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Haggard P, Martin F, Taylor-Clarke M, Jeannerod M, Franck N. Awareness of action in schizophrenia. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1081–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lindner A, Their P, Kircher TT, Haarmeier T, Leube DT. Disorders of agency in schizophrenia correlate with an inability to compensate for the sensory consequences of actions. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1119–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shergill SS, Samson G, Bays PM, Frith CD, Wolpert DM. Evidence for sensory prediction deficits in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:2384–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Blakemore SJ, Wolpert D, Frith C. Why can’t you tickle yourself? Neuroreport. 2000;11:R11-R6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Franck N, Farrer C, Georgieff N, et al. Defective recognition of one’s own actions in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:454–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Delevoye-Turrell Y, Giersch A, Danion H. Abnormal sequencing of motor actions in patients with schizophrenia: Evidence from grip force adjustments during object manipulation. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:134–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Franck N, Posada A, Pichon S, et al. Altered subjective time of events in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193: 350–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Elvevag B, McCormack T, Gilbert A, Brown GD, Weinberger DR, Goldberg TE. Duration judgements in patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2003;33: 1249–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ho BC, Mola C, Andreasen NC. Cerebellar dysfunction in neuroleptic naive schizophrenia patients: Clinical, cognitive, and neuroanatomic correlates of cerebellar neurologic signs. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:1146–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kinney DK, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Woods BT. Neurologic signs of cerebellar and cortical sensory dysfunction in schizophrenics and their relatives. Schizophr Res. 1999;35: 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Marvel CL, Schwartz BL, Rosse RB. A quantitative measure of postural sway deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2004;68:363–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Deshmukh A, Rosenbloom MJ, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV. Clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction in schizophrenia, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Schizophr Res. 2002;57:281–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Fadda F, Rossetti ZL. Chronic ethanol consumption: from neuroadaptation to neurodegeneration. Prog Neurobiol. 1998;56(4):385–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kumari V, Gray JA, Honey GD, Soni W, Bullmore ET, Williams SC, Ng VW, Vythelingum GN, Simmons A, Suckling J, Corr PJ, Sharma T. Procedural learning in schizophrenia: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Schizophr Res. 2002;57(1):97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Farrer C, Franck N, Frith CD, Decety J, Georgieff N, d’Amato T, Jeannerod M. Neural correlates of action attribution in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2004;131(1): 31–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Spence SA, Brooks DJ, Hirsch SR, Liddle PF, Meehan J, Grasby PM. A PET study of voluntary movement in schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena (delusions of alien control). Brain. 1997;120(11): 1997–2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Beyer JL, Krishnan KR. Volumetric brain imaging findings in mood disorders. Bipolar Disord. 2002;4:89–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Strakowski SM, DelBello MP, Adler CM. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: A review of neuroimaging findings. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10:105–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    DelBello MP, Strakowski SM, Zimmerman ME, Hawkins JM, Sax KW. MRI analysis of the cerebellum in bipolar disorder: A pilot study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;21(1):63–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cecil KM, DelBello MP, Scilars MC, Strakowski SM. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the frontal lobe and cerebellar vermis in children with a mood disorder and a familial risk for bipolar disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2003;13(4):545–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ketter TA, Kimbrell TA, George MS, Dunn RT, Speer AM, Benson BE, Willis MW, Danielson A, Frye MA, Herscovitch P, Post RM. Effects of mood and subtype on cerebral glucose metabolism in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(2):97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dickstein DP, Garvey M, Pradella AG, et al. Neurologic examination abnormalities in children with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:517–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Negash A, Kebede D, Alem A, et al. Neurological soft signs in bipolar I disorder patients. J Affect Disord. 2004;80: 221–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Maj M. The effect of lithium in bipolar disorder: A review of recent research evidence. Bipolar Disord. 2003;5:180–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Silverstone PH, Silverstone T. A review of acute treatments for bipolar depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:113–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Adityanjee, Munshi KR, Thampy A. The syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2005;28:38–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mills NP, DelBello MP, Adler CM, et al. MRI analysis of cerebellar vermal abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1530–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Loeber RT, Gruber SA, Cohen BM, et al. Cerebellar blood volume in bipolar patients correlates with medication. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;51:370–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Schneider M, Retz W, Coogan A, et al. Anatomical and functional brain imaging in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-A neurological view. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006;256(Suppl. 1):i32–41.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Carmon S, Vilarroya O, Bielsa A, Tremols V, et al. Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: A voxel-based morphometric study. Neurosci Lett. 2005;389(2): 88–93.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Berquin PC, Giedd JN, Jacobsen LK, Hamburger SD, et al. Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A morphometric MRI study. Neurology. 1998;50(4):1087–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Dickstein SG, Bannon K, Xavier Castellanos F, Milham MP. The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ALE meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47(10):1051–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Dickstein DP, Garvey M, Pradella AG, et al. Neurologic examination abnormalities in children with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:517–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Karatekin C, Markiewicz SW, Siegel MA. A preliminary study of motor problems in children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Percept Mot Skills. 2003;97: 1267–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Piek JP, Skinner RA. Timing and force control during a sequential tapping task in children with and without motor coordination problems. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1999;5: 320–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Piek JP, Pitcher TM, Hay DA. Motor coordination and kinaesthesis in boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999;41:159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Raberger T, Wimmer H. On the automaticity/cerebellar deficit hypothesis of dyslexia: Balancing and continuous rapid naming in dyslexic and ADHD children. Neuropsychologia. 2003;41:1493–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Toplak M, Dockstader C, Tannock R. Temporal information processing in ADHD: Findings to date and new methods. J Neurosci Methods. 2006;151:15–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Radonovich KJ, Mostofsky SH. Duration judgments in children with ADHD suggest deficient utilization of temporal information rather than general impairment in timing. Child Neuropsychol. 2004;10:162–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lewis PA, Miall RC. Distinct systems for automatic and cognitively controlled time measurement: Evidence from neuroimaging. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13: 250–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Piek JP, Dyck MJ. Sensory-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2004;23:475–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    van Meel CS, Oosterlaan J, Heslenfeld DJ, et al. Motivational effects on motor timing in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:451–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Shaw G, Brown G. Arousal, time estimation and time use in attentional-disordered children. Develop Neuropsychol. 1999;16:227–42.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pitcher TM, Piek JP, Hay DA. Fine and gross motor ability in males with ADHD. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003;45:525–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gillberg C, Kadesjo B. Why bother about clumsiness? The implications of having developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Neural Plast. 2003;10:59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Castellanos FX, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Milham MP, et al. Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10:117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sullivan EV, Deshmukh A, Desmond JE, et al. Cerebellar volume decline in normal aging, alcoholism, and Korsakoff s syndrome: Relation to ataxia. Neuropsychology. 2000;14: 341–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Jancke L, Loose R, Lutz K, Specht K, Shah NJ. Cortical activations during paced finger-tapping applying visual and auditory pacing stimuli. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2000;(10):51–66.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rao SM, Harrington DL, Haaland KY, Bobholz JA, Cox RW, Binder JR. Distributed neural systems underlying the timing of movements. J Neurosci. 1997;17: 5528–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Jueptner M, Flerich L, Weiller C, et al. The human cerebellum and temporal information processing — results from a PET experiment. Neuroreport. 1996;7:2761–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Penhune VB, Zattore RJ, Evans AC. Cerebellar contributions to motor timing: A PET study of auditory and visual rhythm reproduction. J Cogn Neurosci. 1998;10: 752–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Coffin JM, Baroody S, Schneider K, et al. Impaired cerebellar learning in children with prenatal alcohol exposure: A comparative study of eyeblink conditioning in children with ADHD and dyslexia. Cortex. 2005;41: 389–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Nicolson RI, Daum I, Schugens MM, et al. Eyeblink conditioning indicates cerebellar abnormality in dyslexia. Exp Brain Res. 2002;143:42–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Blakemore SJ, Tavassoli T, Calo S, et al. Tactile sensitivity in Asperger syndrome. Brain Cogn. 2006;61:5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    O’Riordan MA, Plaisted KC, Driver J, et al. Superior visual search in autism. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2001;27:719–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mottron L, Dawson M, Soulieres I, et al. Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36:27–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Bertone A, Mottron L, Jelenic P, et al. Motion perception in autism: A “complex” issue. J Cogn Neurosci. 2003;15: 218–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Pellicano E, Gibson L, Maybery M, et al. Abnormal global processing along the dorsal visual pathway in autism: A possible mechanism for weak visuospatial coherence? Neuropsychologia. 2005;43:1044–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Dakin S, Carlin P, Hemsley D. Weak suppression of visual context in chronic schizophrenia. Curr Biol. 2005;15: R822–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Dakin S, Frith U. Vagaries of visual perception in autism. Neuron. 2005;48:497–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Life SciencesUniversity of ManchesterUK
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations