The Cerebellum

, 1:223 | Cite as

Acute cerebellitis

  • Yukio SawaishiEmail author
  • Goro Takada
Scientific Papers


Many recent reports of acute cerebellitis with a critical or potentially critical course have changed the conception of the disease from an acute cerebellar ataxia with a benign course to a notable disease entity with a heterogeneous pathogenesis. The most characteristic finding by magnetic resonance imaging is diffuse cortical swelling of the cerebellum, often complicated by hydrocephulus or tonsillar herniation. A timely assessment and appropriate choice of treatment, including surgical intervention when indicated, are key to improving the outcome of affected patients.


cerebellum acute cerebellitis acute cerebellar ataxia hydrocephalus herniation 


  1. 1.
    Gieron-Korthals MA, Westberry KR, Emmanuel PJ. Acute childhood ataxia: 10-year experience. J Child Neurol 1994; 9: 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Connolly AM, Dodson WE, Prensky AL, Rust RS. Course and outcome of acute cerebellar ataxia. Ann Neurol 1994; 35: 673–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayakawa H, Katoh T. Severe cerebellar atrophy following acute cerebellitis. Pediatr Neurol 1995; 12: 159–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kato Z, Shimozawa N, Kokuzawa J, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute cerebellar ataxia: report of a case with gadolinium enhancement and review of the literature. Acta Paediatr Jap 1998; 40: 138–142.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horowitz MB, Pang D, Hirsch W. Acute cerebellitis: case report and review. Pediatr Neurosurg 1991-92: 17: 142–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamada H, Kurimoto M, Masuoka T, Hirashima Y, Endo S, Harada J. A case of surgically treated acute cerebellitis with hydrocephalus. Child Nerv Syst 2001; 17: 500–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levy EI, Harris AE, Omalu BI, Hamilton RL, Branstetter BF, 4th, Pollack IF. Sudden death from fulminant acute cerebellitis. Ped Neurosurg 2001; 35: 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gosalakkal JA. Epsten-Barr virus cerebellitis presenting as obstructive hydrocephalus. Clin Pediatr 2001; 40: 229–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sébire G, ProaUo PG, Martin CS. Spontaneous recovery from severe encephalitis involving cerebellar gray matter. J Child Neurol 2000; 15: 483–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sugiyama Y, Honma M, Yamamoto T. Acute rhombencephalitis: neuroimaging evidence. Intern Med 2000; 39: 486–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Drost G, Verrips A, Thijssen HOM, Gabreëls FJM. Cerebellar involvement as a rare complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Neuropediatrics 2000; 31: 97–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ravi V, Rozen TD. Acute cerebellitis: MRI findings. Neurology 2000; 54: 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirayama K, Sakazaki H, Muramaki S, et al. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29: 282–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sawaishi Y, Takahashi I, Hirayama S, et al. Acute cerebellitis caused byCoxiella burnetii. Ann Neurol 1999; 45: 124–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Göhlich-Ratmann G, Wallot M, Baethmann M, et al. Acute cerebellitis with near-fatal cerebellar swelling and benign outcome under conservative treatment with high dose steroids. Europ J Paediatr Neurol 1998; 2: 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Riva D. The cerebellar contribution to language and sequential functions: evidence from a child with cerebellitis. Cortex 1998; 34: 279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tabarki B, Husson B, Landrieu P. Acute cerebellar atrophy in encephalitis. J Child Neurol 1998; 13: 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aylett SE, O'Neill KS, De Sousa C, Britton J. Cerebellitis presenting as acute hydrocephalus. Child's Nerv Syst 1998; 14: 139–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bakshi R, Bates VE, Kinkel PR, Mechtler LL, Kinkel WR. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute cerebellitis. Clin Imaging 1998; 22: 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komatsu H, Kuroki S, Shimizu Y, Takada H, Takeuchi Y.Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis with antiganglioside antibodies. Pediatr Neurol 1998; 18: 160–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Asenbauer B, McConachie NS, Allcutt D, Farrell MA, King MD. Acute near-fatal parainfectious cerebellar swelling with favorable outcome. Neuropediatrics 1997; 28: 122–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iester A, Alpigiani MG, Franzone G, Cohen A, Puleo MG, Tortori-Donati P. Magnetic resonance imaging in right hemisphere cerebellitis associated with homolateral hemiparesis. Child's Nerv Syst 1995; 11: 118–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perez ER, Maeder P, Cotting J, Eskenazy-Cottier AC, Deonna T. Acute fatal parainfectious cerebellar swelling in two children. A rare or an overlooked situation? Neuropediatrics 1993; 24: 346–351.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murthy JMK, Kishore LT. MR findings in cerebellar ataxia after enteric fever. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1997; 21: 216–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aufricht CA, Tenner W, Stiglbauer R, Rosenmayr F. Transient cerebellopontine demyelinisation revealed by MRI in acute cerebellar ataxia. Pediatr Radiol 1990; 20: 602–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nakagawa E, Yamanouchi H, Sakuragawa N, Takashima S. Vermis lesionsin acute cerebellar ataxia: a sequential imaging study. Brain Dev 1994; 16: 488–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hayashi T, Ichiyama T, Kobayashi K. A case of acute cerebellar ataxia with an MRI abnormality. Brain Dev 1989; 11: 435–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Groen RJM, Begeer JH, Wilmink JT, le Coultre R. Acute cerebellar ataxia in a child with transient pontine lesions demonstrated by MRI. Neuropediatrics 1991; 22: 225–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klockgether T, Döller G, Wüllner U, Petersen D, Dichgans J. Cerebellar encephalitis in adults. J Neurol 1993; 240: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dangond F, Engle E, Yessayan L, Sawyer MH. Pre-eruptive Varicella cerebellitis confirmed by MRI. Pediatr Neurol 1993; 9: 491–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Najda-Stanislawska E. Mumps cerebellitis. Eur Neurol 2000; 43: 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mario-Ubaldo M. Cerebellitis associated with Lyme disease. Lancet 1995; 345: 1060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shoji H, Hirai S, Ishikawa K, et al. CT and MRI imaging of acute cerebellar ataxia. Neuroradiology 1991; 33: 360–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jeffery KJM, Read SJ, Peto TE, Mayon-White RT, Banham CR. Diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system: clinical interpretation of PCR results. Lancet 1997; 349: 313–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    To H, Kako N, Zhang GQ, et al. Q fever pneumonia in children in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34: 647–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Htwe KK, Yoshida T, Hayashi S, et al. Prevalence of antibodies toCoxiella burnetii in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 722–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ito H, Sayama S, Irie S, et al. Antineuronal antibodies in acute cerebellar ataxia following Epstein-Barr virus infection. Neurology 1994; 44: 1504–1507.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsAkita University School of MedicineAkita CityJapan

Personalised recommendations